The development of transport infrastructure and increasing the efficiency of transport services are major factors of economic growth. The concept of transport accessibility can be analysed in various aspects. This article focuses on the accessibility of freight transport by road and rail, measured with infrastructure equipment. The primary objective of this study is to determine the efficiency of selected European countries in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in terms of transport accessibility for given expenditures and results. The efficiency will be measured with the Data Envelopment Analysis, which assesses the efficiency with which a given economy transforms expenditures into results. The hypothesis assumes the existence of differences between the efficiency in terms of transport accessibility in European countries and a possibility to increase this efficiency by using the experience of countries with a high efficiency level.
In view of the significant differences between the socio-economic regions, the level of development of transport is not homogenous. According to Tobler’s law (1970) we can point out that all objects are related to each other, but the ones located closer are more dependent on each other than those farther away. Then we can identify the occurrence of spatial autocorrelation. For example, the European regions can assess whether the border regions of different countries show a similarity to each other.
The main purpose of this article is to assess and analyze the occurrence of spatial autocorrelation in connection with the transport accessibility (measured by density of a motorway network). The general hypothesis is: between European regions, there is a positive spatial autocorrelation in connection with the problems of transport accessibility. Research subjects are selected European regions at NUTS level 2. To evaluate the occurrence of spatial autocorrelation the classic Moran I statistic has been used.
The article discusses the issue of transport availability, taking intoaccount road and rail infrastructure, as compared with socio-economicdevelopment in specific regions of Poland. The issue is studied from thetheoretical and empirical point of view. The nature of the of the research is touse of existing methods for new dataset, namely the transport development levelis estimated based on a composite indicator of development and degree ofconvergence among regions is estimated using classical regional convergencetests. The main goal of the study is to assess the degree of transport availabilitydiversification among regions (voivodships) of Poland in comparison with theirsocio-economic development. The hypothesis assumes that there is strongcorrelation between transport availability and development of the regions andtherefore similarity in the convergence inference.
Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont, Dariusz Szlachetko and Marcin Górniak
Chelystachya, a new genus of the subtribe Polystachyinae (Orchidaceae)
A new genus of Orchidaceae (Polystachyinae), Chelystachya Mytnik & Szlach. is described and illustrated basing on results of molecular and morphological studies. It is related to Polystachya Hook. but is distinct in having large, single-noded, spherical, succulent pseudobulbs flattened on the substratum, pendent and densely pubescent inflorescence, lowermost lip, and lip veins directed to the lip base. Results of phylogenetic analyses based on plastid markers validate the reason for a new genus. Keys for determination of all genera of the subtribe Polystachyinae and both species of Chelystachya are included. Two new combinations are made. A comprehensive description and full synonymy, as well as detailed ecological, phenological and distribution data and a list of 125 examined specimens are provided for each taxon treated. Because Polystachya affinis Lindl. is considered a holotype of Polystachya Hook. sect. Affines Kraenzl., this name is automatically a synonym of the newly introduced generic name Chelystachya. Other species of the former section Affines are classified within the section Humiles.
Dariusz Szlachetko, Magdalena Dudek, Marcin Górniak, Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont and Ricardo Fernandez
Sobralia abadorum (Orchidaceae) - a new orchid species from Peru
Sobralia Ruiz & Pav. is one of the largest genus in Orchidaceae. It comprises about 150 species distributed from Mexico to Bolivia. In this paper, a new species of Sobralia from Peru, S. abadorum, is described and illustrated. Its taxonomic affinity is briefly discussed. An analysis of ITS sequences indicates an isolate position of this new species.