Leki biopodobne odgrywają coraz większą rolę w terapii wielu chorób wraz z wygaśnięciem ochrony patentowej dla kolejnych leków biologicznych. Celem niniejszego opracowania jest przybliżenie terminologii i zasad wprowadzania na rynek leków biopodobnych, zagadnień dotyczących ich etykietowania, ekstrapolacji, wymienialności i automatycznej substytucji. Opracowanie to przedstawia stanowisko Polskiego Towarzystwa Hematologów i Transfuzjologów dotyczące leków biopodobnych, oparte na wytycznych EMA (European Medicine Agency) i stanowisku ESMO (European Society of Medical Oncology).
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) requires collection of sufficient number of hematopoietic stem cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate efficacy of plerixafor used in patients with lymphoid malignancies failing conventional stem cell mobilization.
This was a prospective, non-interventional study. All consecutive patients (n = 109) treated with plerixafor in 11 centers were reported. The drug was used either in case of previous mobilization failure (n = 67) or interventionally, in case of insufficient CD34+ cell output during current mobilization (n = 42). Successful mobilization was defined as resulting in collection of ≥ 2 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg for single autoHSCT or ≥ 4 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg for double procedure.
The overall rate of successful mobilization was 55% (55% for single and 56% for double autoHSCT). The median total number of collected CD34+ cells/kg was 2.4 (range, 0-11.5) for patients intended for a single transplantation while 4.0 (0.6-16.9) for double procedure. The number of circulating CD34+ cells increased after the use of plerixafor regardless of baseline values. The median fold increase was 3.3 (0.3-155). Data from this observational study confirm high efficacy of plerixafor used in routine clinical practice as salvage for patients with lymphoid malignancies failing conventional stem cell mobilization.
No epidemiological data exist so far on invasive mucormycosis (IM) in Polish hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and pediatric hemato-oncology (PHO) centers. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical course, therapy, and outcome of IM in pediatric and adult patients undergoing HCT and children with hemato-oncological diseases in Poland. A total number of 12425 at-risk patients were retrospectively analyzed, and the period between 2010 and 2019 was included. Patients were analyzed in three groups: nontransplant children with malignancies, children undergoing HCT, and adults after HCT. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with IM, including 15 children (10 non-HCT, 5 HCT) and 6 HCT adults. Proven IM was confirmed in 18 patients, probable in 2 patients, and possible in 1 patient. Proven IM was diagnosed in 7.1% of all patients with invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), including 8.1% among PHO patients, 5.4% among pediatric HCT patients, and 7.0% among adult HCT patients. Clinically, pneumonia was diagnosed in 10 (47.6%) patients, involvement of the paranasal sinuses was found in 3 (14.3%) patients, gastrointestinal disease was noted in 2 (9.5%) patients, and disseminated mucormycosis was found in 6 (28.6%) patients. The probability of overall survival in IM patients was 0.50 ± 0.11. Infection-related mortality (IRM) was 10% for pediatric nontransplant IM patients and 82% for transplant IM (pediatric + adult) patients (p = 0.004). Among the transplant patients, all adults died within 120 days. IRM for pediatric HCT patients was 60% (p = 0.038). The only prognostic factor was HCT, which adversely influenced survival in IM patients.