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Sebastian Słodki and Joanna Bogucka

Abstract

For many years, scientists have been pursuing research on skeletal muscle ageing both in humans and animals. Studies on animal models have extended our knowledge of this mechanism in humans. Most researchers agree that the major processes of muscle ageing occur in the mitochondria as the major energy production centres in muscle cells. It is believed that decisive changes occur at the enzymatic activity level as well as in protein synthesis and turnover ability. Deregulation of ion channels and oxidative stress also play significant roles. In particular, in recent years the free radical theory of ageing has undergone considerable modification; researchers are increasingly highlighting the partly positive effects of free radicals on processes occurring in cells. In addition, the influence of diet and physical activity on the rate of muscle cell ageing is widely debated as well as the possibility of delaying it through appropriate physical exercise and diet programmes. Numerous studies, especially those related to genetic processes, are still being conducted, and in the near future the findings could provide valuable information on muscle ageing. The results of ongoing research could answer the perennial question of whether and how we can influence the rate of ageing both in animals and humans.

Open access

Joanna Bogucka and Wojciech Kapelański

Abstract

In 50 fattening pigs representing two Polish native breeds: 24 Złotnicka Spotted, 10 Puławska and 16 F1 ♀ (Polish Large White × Polish Landrace) × F1 ♂ (Duroc × Pietrain) crosses microstructure of muscle, carcass and meat quality were studied. Puławska pigs had the thickest backfat, but the loin eye area was smaller only in comparison to crossbreds. Compared to the Puławska breed, the meat of Złotnicka Spotted pigs was darker, which was associated with a greater percentage of type I fibres and a smaller percentage of type IIB fibres. Puławska pigs distinguished themselves from the other groups under study by the greatest density of fibres per mm2. Smaller diameter of type IIA and IIB fibres and higher total number of fibres were found in Puławska breed pigs compared to Złotnicka Spotted, despite the absence of differences in the loin eye area. Smaller thickness of the fibres favourably affects meat quality, and might be considered an indicator of a delicate structure of meat.

Open access

Joanna Luszczak, Michal Bartosik, Jolanta Rzymowska, Agnieszka Sochaczewska-Dolecka, Ewa Tomaszek, Joanna Wysokinska-Miszczuk and Anna Bogucka-Kocka

Abstract

According to some studies, the Entamoeba gingivalis colonizing the gingival tissue is an important agent in bringing about periodontitis. Other studies, however, deem it an opportunist that is able to survive in the medium induced by periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis infection in patients from the Department of Periodontology, and compare this population with that of healthy people, so as to analyze the relationships between infection and patient sex and age. The result of this work is that in both groups, a correlation (p = 0,19) has been noted between the occurrence of amoebae and other diseases in the oral cavity. Indeed, 81,4% of all patients with some periodontal disease showed the presence of amoeba. Among those who are not afflicted with oral diseases, the presence of amoeba was indicated in 62,5% of the total. In addition, a correlation between the person's age and the presence of protozoa (p = 0,15) was strongly marked among women (p = 0,19). In the three age groups of women in this study (40-49, 60-69, and above 80 years), we observed a 100% presence of protozoa.

Our study leads us to the conclusion that infections with Entamoeba gingivalis should be regarded as an factor that is associated with the pathological changes occurring in patients with periodontal diseases.

Open access

Joanna Bogucka, Agata Dankowiakowska, Gabriela Elminowska-Wenda, Adrianna Sobolewska, Jan Jankowski, Michał Szpinda and Marek Bednarczyk

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of prebiotic and synbiotic preparations injected in ovo on day 12 of embryogenesis on both development of intestinal villi and the number of neutral goblet cells in the small intestine of male broiler chickens on day 35 of rearing. Eggs containing live embryos were randomly separated into five experimental groups (1800 eggs per group), and treated with different bioactive compounds by in ovo injection. The control group (C) was injected with physiological saline. The prebiotic groups (PI and PB) were injected with a solution containing 1.76 mg of inulin or with a solution containing 0.528 mg of Bi2tos. The injection solution for both synbiotic groups (SI and SB) consisted of 1.76 mg Inulin + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. lactis 2955 (SL1) or 0.528 mg Bi2tos + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. cremoris 477 (SC1). Samples for histological analysis were taken from the three segments of the small intestine: the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Broiler performance increased in the prebiotic group injected with Bi2tos when compared to both the control group and the prebiotic group injected with inulin. In relation to other groups, in the duodenum and ileum the highest intestinal villi were observed in chickens with the lowest body weight, i.e. groups C and PI. The smaller surface area of villi was found in the jejunum and ileum in group SB. As far as the jejunum and ileum are concerned, a significantly higher number of goblet cells was noted in groups PB and SB.