The limitation of territorial expansion and the implementation of the idea of a compact city are generally accepted paradigms of spatial development of contemporary cities. In consequence, actions are taken to improve the quality of city landscape and revitalise vacant areas. This study approaches the process of city regeneration as transformation and supplementation of the existing urban structure as well as creation of multifunctional, structurally, socially and ecologically sustainable spaces. The article presents the problem of creation of new-inner city residential areas. The study was conducted on three housing estates located in post-industrial and post-military areas: Harbourside Development in Bristol (UK), City Park and Ułańskie Estate in Poznań (Poland) and Browar Gdański in Gdańsk (Poland). The article includes analyses of relations between the estates and their surroundings, spatial structure parameters and architectural, urban and scenic characteristics. It includes assessment of the legibility, consistency, diversity and quality of the urban landscape.
In civil societies, urban movements are one of the tools in the process of spatial governance. In Poland, urban activism is beginning to develop together with a budding participation in public life. Therefore, there is a need to assess the scope and effects of the urban movements’ actions. The aim of the study was to determine and evaluate their impact on the spatial development in three Polish cities - Poznań, Gdańsk and Gdynia, especially in regard to the procedures in local urban planning and the process of participation. On the basis of the data collected during research and community interviews conducted in these cities, the following factors were analysed: the background and current profile of urban movements, the extent, regularity and effectiveness of their actions, the planning and spatial development initiatives undertaken, their cooperation with the local authorities and their contribution to the enhancement of participatory mechanisms.