The effect of crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian cows with other breeds is usually improved genetic potential of crossbreds in terms of longevity. However, culling decisions, which in practice determine the longevity in dairy cows, are contingent on many environmental and economic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate longevity in relation to culling reasons in Holstein-Friesian cows of the Black-and-White strain (HO) and crossbreds, taking genotype, age at first calving, herd size, culling season, culling reason and milking temperament into consideration. The data analysed concerned 154,256 dairy cows culled in Poland in 2015. It was found that all studied factors significantly affected cow lifetime performance. The mean age at culling in dairy cows of HO strain exceeded 6 years, with mean lifetime energy-corrected milk (LECM) yield of 28,933 kg and mean lifetime energy-corrected milk yield per milking day (DECM) of 20.2 kg. Crossbreds, on the other hand, tended to have shorter lifespans, with mean LECM yield amounting to less than 25,000 kg. Mean LECM yield of cows surviving for the longest period (9.2 years), amounted to 47,771 kg, and reproduction problems were unquestionably the most common (40%) reason for cows’ culling. A suggestion was made to take milking temperament into account in breeding practice, as this trait proves to be closely related to the longevity characteristics of dairy cows. It was also proposed that the culling reasons be subjected to a more comprehensive analysis, considering the “life history” of cows as well as the interactions between different reasons for their removal from the herd.
The practical problems of implementing the Regulation on Landscape Audits (European Landscape Convention, ELC) in Poland are discussed through the topic of landscape relief, on an example of landscape classification of three of Poland’s landscape parks. In the existing landscape typologies, various criteria are proposed, in which relief is usually considered to be one of the leading components. The study was carried out for the purposes of the Landscape Parks Conservation Plans, based on a comparison of the method under the Principles of Landscape Audits and the authors’ method. The results indicate that the landscape types set out in the regulation insuficiently take relief into account, leading to omitting the local specific nature of the terrain. The essential attributes of the terrain in the analysed parks are the morphometry of relief and its genesis. Relief helps to determine the landscape types that are more related to the terrain.
In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966). The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446) for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.
Introduction. Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method that allows cutaneous microcirculation to be analyzed. During the last decades, a diagnostic and prognostic potential of nailfold capillaroscopy (NVC) has been gaining increasing appreciation. The main indications include Raynaud phenomenon and scleroderma spectrum diseases, however the usefulness of this technique is also suggested in a variety of non-rheumatic diseases.
Aim. To assess capillaroscopic patterns in systemic scleroderma (SSc), psoriasis (PV), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia. To evaluate serum levels of several endothelial and angiogenic markers, and their relation to capillaroscopic pattern.
Material and methods. There were evaluated 295 patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc), psoriasis (PV), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia, as well as age- and sex-matched controls, were examined. In each subject, NVC was performed and serum concentration levels of several angiogenic markers.
Results. In SSc three NVC patterns: early, active and late were distinguished. Angiopoietin-2 concentrations were higher and andothelial microparticles were lower in patients with late NVC pattern. We found several differences between the NVC pattern in PV and PsA. No correlations between NVC pattern and serum levels of angiogenic markers were revealed. In AA, we distinguished both normal and abnormal NVC patterns, although the normal patterns were more frequent. Branching capillaries and features of neoformation were often present in patients with the abnormal pattern. In androgenetic alopecia, the normal NVC pattern was most frequently present, however, we found several statistically significant capillarosopic alterations, like branching capillaries, features of neoformation and altered distribution of capillaries.
Discussion and Conclusions. Serum levels of Ang-2 and EMPs may reflect capillary damage in SSc. NVC pattern varies between PV and PsA patients. The presence of abnormal NVC patterns in alopecia patients might show the role of disturbances in microcirculation in the diseases. Further studies are required to confirm the hypothesis.
The project was performed within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE). The objective was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of side effects, which theoretically may occur as a result of treatment of selected diseases. We analyzed the Drug Programs financed by National Health Fund in Poland in 2012 and for the first analysis we selected those Programs where the same medicinal products were used. We based the adverse events selection on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We extracted all the potential adverse events defined as frequent and very frequent, grouping them according to therapeutic areas. This paper is related to the results in the pulmonology area. The events described as very common had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and the common ones ≥ 1/100, <1/10. In order to identify the resources used, we performed a survey with the engagement of clinical experts. On the basis of the collected data we allocated direct costs incurred by the public payer. We used the costs valid in December 2013. The paper presents the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the pulmonology disease area. Taking into account the costs incurred by the NHF and the patient separately e calculated the total spending and the percentage of each component cost in detail. The treatment of adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost incurred by both the public payer and the patient.