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  • Author: Jirun Apinun x
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Osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in Thai silk fibroin/collagen hydrogel: a pilot study in vitro

Abstract

Background

Silk fibroin (SF) can be processed into a hydrogel. SF/collagen hydrogel may be a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

Objectives

To investigate in vitro biocompatibility and osteogenic potential of encapsulated rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rat MSCs) in an injectable Thai SF/collagen hydrogel induced by oleic acid–poloxamer 188 surfactant mixture in an in vitro pilot study.

Methods

Rat MSCs were encapsulated in 3 groups of hydrogel scaffolds (SF, SF with 0.05% collagen [SF/0.05C], and SF with 0.1% collagen [SF/0.1C]) and cultured in a growth medium and an osteogenic induction medium. DNA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and calcium were assayed at periodically for up to 5 weeks. After 6 weeks of culture the cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

Results

Although SF hydrogel with collagen seems to have less efficiency to encapsulate rat MSCs, their plateau phase growth in all hydrogels was comparable. Inability to maintain cell viability as cell populations declined over 1–5 days was observed. Cell numbers then plateaued and were maintained until day 14 of culture. ALP activity and calcium content of rat MSCs in SF/collagen hydrogels were highest at day 21. An enhancing effect of collagen combined with the hydrogel was observed for proliferation and matrix formation; however, benefits of the combination on osteogenic differentiation and biomineralization are as yet unclear.

Conclusion

Rat MSCs in SF and SF/collagen hydrogels showed osteogenic differentiation. Accordingly, these hydrogels may serve as promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Open access
Unusual accessory peroneal muscles, peroneus quartus, peroneus digiti quinti, and their association with peroneus brevis tendon tear

Abstract

Background

Anatomic variation and supernumerary contents in the superior peroneal tunnel, and the prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence and peroneal tubercle are related to peroneal tendon disorders.

Objectives

To investigate the prevalence, origin, and insertion of accessory peroneal muscles, the prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence and peroneal tubercle, and their association with peroneal tendon tears.

Methods

We examined 109 formalin-embalmed legs of cadavers from Thai donors. Accessory peroneal muscles and peroneal tendon tears were noted. Associations with peroneal tendon tears were evaluated using a χ2 test.

Results

We found 48 accessory peroneal muscles comprising 13 peroneus quartus (PQ), 33 peroneus digiti quinti (PDQ), and 2 unusual muscles. All PDQ originated from the PB tendon and inserted on various parts of the 5th toe. The PQ originated mostly from the PB muscle belly and less from the tendinous part with various insertions on the retrotrochlear eminence, peroneal tubercle, cuboid, and dorsolateral surface of the 5th metatarsal base. Two unusual accessory muscles were identified, 1 coexisting with the PQ. A PB tendon tear was found in 13% of specimens. We found no association between the peroneal tendon tears and the accessory peroneal muscles, or prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence or peroneal tubercle.

Conclusions

The prevalence of PQ, PDQ, and unusual accessory peroneal muscles was concordant with previous findings. We noted a new type of unusual accessory peroneal muscle coexisting with the PQ. No association was found between peroneal tendon tears and the PQ, PDQ, or prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence or peroneal tubercle.

Open access