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  • Author: Jing-Nie x
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The Comparative Study on Two Models of Syndrome Differentiation of the Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: An Investigation Analysis of the Signs and Symptoms on 2 325 Cases


Objective To realize the characteristics of “zheng” differentiation-treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a new methodology of syndrome differentiation for different stages of HFMD has been explored.

Methods Total of 2 325 cases with HFMD were recorded by distributing them into exterior syndrome stage, interior syndrome stage, severe syndrome stage and recovered syndrome stage, respectively, and the main symptoms and subsidiary symptoms of different stages of HFMD have been observed. The major and minor pathogenesis of HFMD in different stages were obtained, and compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”.

Results It was found that the major pathogenesis of exterior stage was defined as “the invation of the wenevil to the defender of the body with the collaterals got involved”, and the minor as “qi deficiency”; in interior stage, “the fury of Gan-Yang” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos and qi deficiency” was the minor; in severe syndrome stage, “the damage of heart, liver and lung” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos” was the minor; and the pathogenesis of recovered stage was “qi-yin deficiency”. Compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”, it showed that “the obstruction of the fei-pi qi by the mixture of shi-re evil” and “the mixture of shi-re” in vivo was quite difficult to be explained in completely different context in the general situation; in the severe stage, the TCM clinical characteristics of syndrome differentiation might lose; in the early acute severe cases, the phenomenon that xin-yang and fei-qi almost ran out was difficult to be observed, then, the line between the severe and the acute severe became vague.

Conclusions The theory of syndrome differentiation by stages of HFMD was reasonable in the actual situation of clinical description on HFMD which was expected to be further tested and widely applied in the “zheng” differentiation-treatment of HFMD in the future.

Open access
Analysis of Various ESDD of Contaminant Insulator Flashover Acoustic Signal by Wavelet Packet


With the formation of China’s large power grid, the security of the network is particularly important. The contaminant flashover of insulators has a serious impact on the operation safety of a high voltage power network. In this paper, the acoustic signals’ characteristics of the contaminant insulators flashover are analyzed, and, as a result, the correlation between the acoustic signal and the contaminant insulator flashover is established. To experiment with contaminant insulator for three different Equivalent Salt Deposit Densities (ESDD), acoustic signals were collected separately. Then, the contaminant insulators’ acoustic signals of flashover were analyzed by wavelet packet. The characteristics of the signals were obtained, and they can be judged for contaminant flashover warning.

Open access
Screening of early diagnostic markers of gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in canines



The value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) was assessed in early diagnosis of gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in dogs.

Material and Methods

Subcutaneous gentamicin injection in 16 healthy adult beagles made the AKI model. Blood was sampled every 6 h to detect NGAL, Kim-1, L-FABP, and serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations. Kidney tissue of two dogs was taken before the injection, as soon as SCr was elevated (78 μmol/L), and when it had risen to 1.5 times the baseline, and haematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe changes.


NGAL, Kim-1, and SCr levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 18, 30, and 78 h post injection, but L-FABP concentration was not associated with renal injury. At the earliest SCr elevation stage, findings were mild oedema, degeneration, and vacuolisation in renal tubular epithelial cells in pathology, and mild cytoplasmic and mitochondrial oedema in TEM. At this time point, NGAL and Kim-1 concentrations were significantly increased (P < 0.05), indicating that these two molecules biomark early kidney injury in dogs. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, their warning levels were > 25.31 ng/mL and > 48.52 pg/mL.


Plasma NGAL and Kim-1 above warning levels are early indicators of gentamicin-induced AKI in dogs.

Open access