Analysis of ATE Measurability Using Information Flow Model
Since many test equipments can't be calibrated conveniently, this paper proposed a new concept named measurability to solve the problem. The measurability is defined, and its indexes are given in detail. Selected from the models of testability, the information flow model is used to analyze the ATE (automatic test equipment) measurability. The correlative matrix of information flow model is decided according to the trace chain. Finally, a practical example is given to show the analysis process.
With the rapid construction of smart grid, many applications of the new generation and the large power dynamic loads are revolutionizing the electrical energy measurement of electricity meters. The dynamic measurement errors produced by electricity meters are intolerable. In order to solve the dynamic error measurement of electrical energy, firstly, this paper proposes a three-phase pseudorandom dynamic test power signal model to reflect the main characteristics of dynamic loads. Secondly, a compressive measurement algorithm is proposed by the means of steady-state optimization to accurately measure the electrical energy. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the three-phase pseudorandom dynamic test signal model, the maximum errors of compressive measurement algorithm are superior to 1×10-13, the high precision enables the algorithm to accurately measure the electrical energy under different dynamic conditions.
The deliveries of 20 added flavor constituents, total particulate matter (TPM), nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in cigarette mainstream smoke were studied when filter ventilation was 0, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The flavor substance test was done by addition of standard samples. The flavor constituents in cigarette smoke condensate were separated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and capillary gas chromatography (GC). The flavor constituents were identified and determined quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC. The flavors studied were methylpyrazine, furaldehyde, 5-methylfuraldehyde, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, trimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyridine, phenylacetaldehyde, acetophenone, linalool, b-phenylethyl alcohol, isophorone, oxoisophorone, benzyl acetate, menthol, ethyl octanoate, b-damascenone, b-damascone, geranylacetone and b-ionone. The deliveries of TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in mainstream smoke were determined according to International Standard methods. It was found that the flavor constituents and routine components in mainstream smoke decreased in different proportions as the filter ventilation increased. Carbon monoxide and ‘tar’ decreased more than nicotine. The flavor constituents with lower boiling points and lower molecular weights decreased more than those with higher boiling points and higher molecular weights. With the increase of filter ventilation, not only is the amount of smoke components reduced and the smoke taste weakened, but also the composition of smoke is modified and the quality of aroma changed slightly. These findings should be considered when developing low-‘tar’ cigarettes through the use of filter ventilation technology.
A method on theoretical simulation of chromosome breaks in cells exposed to heavy ions
Background. The aim of this study is to assess an easy and quick method on simulating chromosome breaks in cells exposed to heavy charged particles.
Methods. The theoretical value of chromosome break was calculated, and the validated comparison with the experimental value by using a premature chromosome condensation technique was done.
Results. A good consistence was found to be appeared between the theoretical and experimental value.
Conclusions. This suggested that a higher relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions was closely correlated with its physical characteristics and besides, a safe approach on predicting chromosome breaks in cells exposed to heavy ions at off-line environment come to be considered. Furthermore, three key factors influencing the theoretical simulation was investigated and discussed.
The morphology of nanospheres is crucial for designing the nanofabrication in the nanosphere lithography. Here, by plasma etching, the controllable tailoring of the nanosphere is realized and its morphology dependence on the initial shape, microscopic roughness, and the etching conditions is investigated quantitatively. The results show that the shape evolution strongly depends on the etching gas, power, and process duration. Particularly, the aspect ratio (diameter/height) significantly increases with violent etching, turning the spherical shape into tiny ellipsoidal nanoparticles. The findings are practical to the protocol of non-uniform etching of nanoobjects and provide the useful design tool for the device fabrication at nanoscale.
The habitat selection by animals depends on different environmental and anthropogenic factors such as the season, climate, and the life cycle stage. Here, we have presented the summer habitat selection strategy of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in the unprotected forest area from the northern arctic region of China. In summer 2012, we investigated a total of 72 used and 162 non-used plots in the reindeer habitat to record habitat variables. We found that the reindeer used significantly higher altitude, arbour availability, and vegetation cover area as compared to the non-used habitat variables. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that six principal components (68.5%) were mainly responsible for the summer habitat selection of reindeer such as the slope position, concealment, anthropogenic dispersion, arbour species, distance from the anthropogenic disturbance area (> 1000 m) and water quality (Wilks’ Lambda = 0.12; P = 0.0001). The local people are largely dependent on forest product resource in these regions, such as bees herding, collecting wild vegetables, hunting, poaching, and grazing. These activities highly influenced the reindeer habitat and its behaviours. This study thus confirmed that reindeers are forced to choose poor habitat in unprotected forest area with high human disturbance or interference. These factors should be considered by the concerned authority or agency to manage reindeer population in the wild.
Glasses composed of ternary components (35 – x)Sb2O3–xBi2O3–65P2O5 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 20 mol%) have been prepared and investigated as a potential alternative to lead-free glass for low temperature applications. Their structural properties were studied by Infrared Spectroscopy IR and Differential Thermal Analysis DTA. Results from the IR showed that Sb3+ and Bi3+ were responsible for glass network structure, which was supported by the diversification of density ρ and molar volume Vm with an increasing amount of Bi2O3. Glass transition temperature Tg, thermal stability, and coefficient of thermal expansion increased after substitution of Bi2O3 for Sb2O3 within the range of 0 mol% to 20 mol%. The water durability decreased and then increased; it could be attributed to the corrosion resistant P–O–Sb bonds. A typical sample of 25Sb2O3–10Bi2O3–65P2O5 possesses excellent properties and can be a promising candidate for further applications.
Background: The alternative splicing of Bcl-x generates the proapoptotic Bcl-xs protein and the antiapoptotic variant Bcl-xl. Previous studies have demonstrated that some chemotherapeutic agents such as emetine, staurosporine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in combination with ibuprofen significantly altered the ratio of the Bcl-x variants Bcl-xs/Bcl-xl in various cell lines, suggesting Bcl-x splicing might be affected by the exogenous stimuli.
Objective: We investigated the regulative role of imatinib in the alternative pre-mRNA splicing of Bcl-x in K562 cells and the related mechanism.
Methods: Cell proliferation was measured using WST assay kit. Cell apoptosis was assayed using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. RT-PCR and western blot assay was used to analyze the mRNA and protein level of alternative splicing of exon 2 in the Bcl-x gene respectively.
Results: Imatinib regulated the alternative splicing in the Bcl-x gene in the K562 cells. In addition, we found that hydroxyurea, another agent for the therapy of CML, could enhance the effect of imatinib on the ratio of the Bcl-xl/Bcl-xs. Moreover, the induction of alternative splicing was correlated with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Alternatively, pretreatment with calyculin efficiently blocked imatinib-induced alternative splcing in the K562 cells compared with okadaic acid, which showed an important role of PP1 in regulating imatinib-induced splicing.
Conclusion: Imatinib regulates the alternative splicing of Bcl-x in K562 cells, which may be associated with the activation of PP1.
With the formation of China’s large power grid, the security of the network is particularly important. The contaminant flashover of insulators has a serious impact on the operation safety of a high voltage power network. In this paper, the acoustic signals’ characteristics of the contaminant insulators flashover are analyzed, and, as a result, the correlation between the acoustic signal and the contaminant insulator flashover is established. To experiment with contaminant insulator for three different Equivalent Salt Deposit Densities (ESDD), acoustic signals were collected separately. Then, the contaminant insulators’ acoustic signals of flashover were analyzed by wavelet packet. The characteristics of the signals were obtained, and they can be judged for contaminant flashover warning.
A topological index is a numeric quantity associated with a network or a graph that characterizes its whole structural properties. In [Javaid and Cao, Neural Computing and Applications, DOI 10.1007/s00521-017-2972-1], the various degree-based topological indices for the probabilistic neural networks are studied. We extend this study by considering the calculations of the other topological indices, and derive the analytical closed formulas for these new topological indices of the probabilistic neural network. Moreover, a comparative study using computer-based graphs has been carried out first time to clarify the nature of the computed topological descriptors for the probabilistic neural networks. Our results extend some known conclusions.