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Jindřich Frajer and David Fiedor

Abstract

Due to global climate change and anthropogenic pressures on the landscape, one of the current geographical problems is retention of water in agricultural landscapes. One possibility to tackle this issue is the construction of artificial water bodies, which has historical traditions in the form of fishponds in Central European landscapes. Unfortunately, many such water bodies were transformed into arable lands during the 18th and 19th centuries. In this study, the identification and spatial distribution of these extinct water bodies is subject to examination, using place names in a GIS environment. Some 375 place names were selected from the official database of place names in the Czech Republic. This set of names was compared to current maps, as well as to old maps from the Habsburg monarchy from 1783–1880 (1st, 2nd and 3rd Military Survey). The map resources were used to find out if a place name was related to an extinct fishpond, and in which period the pond ceased to exist. Using spatial statistics, the existence of areas with a high concentration of place names referring to extinct ponds is demonstrated. It has also been established that areas linked to fishpond extinction in the same period now face more frequent droughts. Thus, the set of place names can be used to identify not only extinct water bodies, but also to serve as being potentially useful in other analyses using GIS, as well as in the public sphere (reclamation).

Open access

Jan Kopp, Jindřich Frajer and Renata Pavelková

Abstract

In the study area of the Sulkov site in the western part of the suburban landscape of the city of Pilsen we focus on detailed historical analysis of the development of the landscape, which has undergone significant changes, and thus clearly demonstrates the impact of the driving forces on both the regional and inter-regional levels. The documented historical development of ecotopes proved that the fundamental changes in the use of the natural potential had been determined by social and economical demand. The specific use of each type of ecotopes of the site was then co-decided by the natural potential of the area and the geographic location with good transport connection, i.e. local and regional factors.

Open access

Jan Kopp, Jindřich Frajer and Marie Novotná

Abstract

This study is focused on the changing of areas of water bodies in selected villages of the Pilsen Region (Czechia). We researched several different types of rural settlements and three time horizons with the help of old maps, orthophoto maps and GIS tools. To capture the influence of their location within the urban system, we chose 15 places from four categories (inner suburban area, outside suburban area, rural area, periphery rural area) depending on their distance to the core of the Pilsen agglomeration. There is no significant change in the amount of water bodies between the first reference period (1838-1839) and the second period (1957-1963) in the selected settlements. However, the third period (2013-2015) is characterized by the emergence of a large number of small water bodies - swimming pools and garden ponds. Based on the results of our research we identified the declining importance of public water bodies in some of the settlements. However, we have identified a notable prevalence of garden ponds which have a more positive ecological impact than pools. The proportion of private water bodies (covered and uncovered pools and garden ponds) in the total area of water bodies in the rural settlements in most cases is less than 20%, in the suburban settlements up to 100%. Peripheral settlements have a below-average share of these water bodies. The difference between the number of pools in different settlements is related to the proportion of newly built houses there. Although there are relatively fewer pools in rural settlements, the difference compared to the situation in suburban settlements is not pronounced due to the change in lifestyle in rural areas and the change in functions of some villages to recreational areas. Influence of pools on water consumption is dependent on the individual exchange technology of water in swimming pools. Filling of the pool before the season can overload the capacity of the local water supply.

Open access

Marek Havlíček, Renata Pavelková, Jindřich Frajer and Hana Skokanová

Abstract

The long-term development of water bodies is investigated in this article using the cases of two river basins with similar natural conditions: the Kyjovka and Trkmanka River Basins in the Czech Republic. Using old topographic maps, land use development was assessed and the analysis of driving forces of land use changes was carried out. The essential land use changes in these areas are connected with the processes of agricultural intensification and urbanisation. The largest area of water bodies was recorded in both river basins in 1763. In the second half of the 19th century, the disappearance of most water bodies in the two basins was significantly affected by the above-mentioned driving forces. After World War II, some of the water bodies in the Kyjovka River Basin were restored and new ponds were established. In contrast, no significant water bodies were restored in the Trkmanka River Basin.