Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonoses in the world. Incidence of the disease has increased significantly in recent years and has seriously affected the health of human beings and the development of animal husbandry. The pathogenesis of brucellosis remains unclear. Current studies suggest that this disease may be related to changes in natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages in immune cell subsets. Brucellosis may be also related to T helper (Th) 1 cell/Th2 cell imbalance in the CD4+ T cell subset, immunoregulation of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and the mechanism of action of CD8+ T cell. This paper aims to review the research progress on these inherent immune cells, the CD4+ T cell subset, and CD8+ T cells in Brucella infection.