Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes of the human body. Approximately 80% of sexually active women are likely infected with HPV. Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors and is second in incidence only to breast cancer. Infection with high-risk HPV types is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, which is currently the only malignant tumor with a clearly defined etiology. HPV infection is also closely related to the incidence and development of other malignant tumors. In addition to cervical cancer, HPV can cause other urogenital tumors, as well as tumors in the digestive tract, lungs, eyes, skin, and other organ systems. This paper provides a review of the progress in HPV infection-related research and provides novel ideas for the study of tumor etiology and mechanisms.