A novel zinc porphyrin (5,10,15-tri-dodecoxyphenyl-20-(4-hydroxyphenyl-azo-benzenyl)-porphyrinatozinc (tdhab-ZnP)) with benzenyl-azo-phenolic group, able to adsorb on the nanocrystalline-TiO2 film, has been synthesized. We constructed a dye-sensitized solar cell based on the nanocrystalline-TiO2 hierarchical structure film, with a power conversion efficiency of 4.15 % and a high current density of 14 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 irradiation. UV-Vis absorption spectra measurements indicated that the tdhab-ZnP molecules formed a charge transfer complex with TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) through the phenolic group. Cyclic voltammetry measurement showed that the charge separation resulting from the tdhab-ZnP excited singlet state to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2 and charge shifting from the I−/I3− couple to the porphyrin radical cation were thermodynamically feasible.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, high levels of cytokines, and erosion of cartilage and bone in joints. Calprotectin (CLP), as a recently described member of S100 family proteins, is a heterodimeric complex of S100A8 and S100A9. Currently, plenty of studies have indicated significantly increased serum and synovial fluid levels of CLP in patients with RA. It was reported that CLP was related to cell differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and production of pro-inflammatory factors in RA. In addition, there are the positive relationships between serum, synovial CLP and traditional acute phase reactants, disease activity, ultrasound and radiographic progression of joints, and treatment response of RA. In this review, we mainly discuss the role of CLP in the pathogenesis of RA as well as its potential to estimate clinical disease progression of RA patients.
This paper puts forward a reliability estimation method by the Degradation Amount Distribution (DAD) of products, using a composite time series modeling procedure and grey theory based on a random failure threshold. Product DAD data are treated as a composite time series and described using a composite time series model to predict a long-term trend of degradation. The degradation test is processed for a certain electronic product and the degradation data is collected for reliability estimation. Comparison among the reliability evaluation by DAD composite time series analysis and grey theory, based on a constant and a random failure threshold, reliability evaluation by DAD regression analysis based on a random failure threshold, reliability evaluation by degradation path time series analysis, and real reliability of the electronic product is done. The results show that the reliability evaluation of the product using the method proposed is the most creditable of all.
Based on basic equation and boundary layer theory of pneumodynamics, the thesis conducts numerical modeling and theoretical analysis on the last stage of turbine characteristics at a small volume flow by using FLUENT, gives an emphasized analysis on the position of first occurrence of backflow and its expansion direction and comes up with flow structure of the turbine flow field at last stage in the small volume flow condition. In connection with specific experiments, it puts forward the flow model of backflow occurring in the last stage field and the solution to the model. The flow field at last stage for a 100MW turbine in the small volume flow condition that is calculated by using the model is basically in conformity to the actual result.
Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness
Background. As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness.
Methods. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed.
Results. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax.
Conclusions. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer.
The quasi-static tensile damage behavior of one type of layer-to-layer 3-Dimensional Angle-interlock Woven Composite (3DAWC) was tested and analyzed in this paper. Incorporated with the acoustic emission (AE) events monitoring, the mechanical behavior of the 3DAWC under tensile loading condition was characterized. The Load-Extension curve, Load/AE events-Time curves occurred during the entire testing process and tensile damage modes were recorded to characterize and summarize the mechanical properties and damage mechanism of the 3DAWC subjected to tensile loading. It was found that the tensile damage of the 3DAWC could be summarized into 3 steps. And each step has a distinct primary damage mode. Moreover, the resin cracks, resin-yarn interface debonding and yarn breakages were the main damage modes for the 3DAWC.
With the gradual increase of the thermal power unit capacity, the inlet steam parameters and flow of the turbine also increase gradually, which causes considerable secondary flow loss. Therefore, studying the causes and distribution of secondary flow loss within the level is of great significance to effectively improve the stage internal efficiency of turbine. Take high-pressure stage moving blade of a turbine as the research object, and adopt the k-ωSST model, the SIMPLEC algorithm to numerically simulate the formation and development process of leakage vortex between the tip clearance of the positive bending twisted blade and its effect on the secondary flow of cascade passage. Results show that relative to the conventional twisted blade, the scope of influence of leakage vortex which the steam flow formed near the suction surface of positive bending twisted blade and the disturbance to passage mainstream become smaller, and the increase of tip clearance has weakened the „C“ type pressure gradient of suction surface of the positive bending twisted blade, increased the thickness of the boundary layer at both ends of blades and the loss of the blade end.
The most attractive structural feature of the three-dimensional (3D) angle-interlock woven structure is that the straight weft yarns are bundled by the undulated warp yarns, which induces the overall good structural stability and a stable fabric structure. Thus the 3-D angle-interlock woven composite (3DAWC) prepared by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) curing process has excellent mechanical properties by using the fabric and epoxy resin as the reinforcement and matrix, respectively. The low-velocity impact damage properties of the composites under different drop-weight energies (70, 80, and 100 J) were tested experimentally. The load–displacement curves, energy–time curves, and the ultimate failure modes were obtained to analyze the performance of resistance to low-velocity impact, as well as the impact energy absorption effect and failure mechanism, especially the structural damage characteristics of the 3DAWC subjected to the low-velocity impact of drop weight. By analyzing the obtained experimental results, it is found that the fabric reinforcement is the primary energy absorption component and the impact energy mainly propagates along the longitudinal direction of the yarns, especially the weft yarn system, which is arranged in a straight way. In addition, as the impact energy increases, the energy absorbed and dissipated by the composite increases simultaneously. This phenomenon is manifested in the severity of deformation and damage of the material, i.e., the amount of deformation and size of the damaged area.
The Gyaring Co Fault (GCF) is an active right-lateral strike-slip fault in central Tibet that accommodates convergence between India and Asia in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau. The average long-term slip rate of the fault remains controversial, given the absence of absolute age data of faulted geomorphic features. We have applied optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to the northern segment of the GCF, revealing that the GCF has displaced alluvial fans at Aerqingsang by 500 ± 100 m since their deposition at ~109 ka, yielding a slip rate of 4.6 ± 1.0 mm/yr. A slip rate of 3.4 ± 0.4 mm/yr is inferred from analysis of an alluvial fan with an offset of 65 ± 5 m (~19 ka) at Quba site 1. The Holocene slip rate is estimated to be 1.9 ± 0.3 mm/yr, as inferred from the basal age (~8.3 ka) of terrace T1 that has a gully displacement of 16 ± 2 m at Quba site 2. These slip rates are generally lower early estimates (10–20 mm/yr), but are consistent with more recent results (2.2–4.5 mm/yr) and GPS data for other strike-slip faults in this region, indicating that deformation may be distributed across the entire Tibetan Plateau. Moreover, we suggest that the slip rate along the GCF may have decreased slightly during the late Quaternary.
Research methods play an extremely important role in studies. Statistical methods are fundamental and vital for quantitative research. The authors of this paper investigated the research papers that used statistical methods including parametric inferential statistical methods, nonparametric inferential statistical methods, predictive statistical correlation methods, and predictive statistical regression methods in library and information science and examined the connections and interactions between statistical methods and their application areas including information creation, information selection and control, information organization, information retrieval, information dissemination, and information use. Both an inferential statistical method and graphic clustering visualization method were employed to explore the relationships between statistical methods and application areas and reveal the hidden interaction patterns. As a result, 1821 research papers employing statistical methods were identified among the papers published in six major library and information science journals from 1999 to 2017. The findings showed that application areas affected the types of statistical methods utilized. Studies in information organization and information retrieval tended to employ parametric and nonparametric inferential methods, while correlation and regression methods were applied more in studies in information use, information dissemination, information creation, and information selection and control field. These findings help researchers better understand the statistical method orientation of library and information science studies and assist educators in the field to develop applicable quantitative research methodology courses.