Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, high levels of cytokines, and erosion of cartilage and bone in joints. Calprotectin (CLP), as a recently described member of S100 family proteins, is a heterodimeric complex of S100A8 and S100A9. Currently, plenty of studies have indicated significantly increased serum and synovial fluid levels of CLP in patients with RA. It was reported that CLP was related to cell differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and production of pro-inflammatory factors in RA. In addition, there are the positive relationships between serum, synovial CLP and traditional acute phase reactants, disease activity, ultrasound and radiographic progression of joints, and treatment response of RA. In this review, we mainly discuss the role of CLP in the pathogenesis of RA as well as its potential to estimate clinical disease progression of RA patients.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. In recent decades, accumulating evidence has revealed that the hepatokines, proteins mainly secreted by the liver, play important roles in the development of NAFLD by acting directly on the lipid and glucose metabolism. As a member of organokines, the hepatokines establish the communication between the liver and the adipose, muscular tissues. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the hepatokines and how they modulate the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders especially NAFLD.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease and is supposed to have both genetic and environmental backgrounds. Plenty of studies have demonstrated the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the initiation and development of RA. Numerous lncRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in RA and to be correlated with disease activity of RA, which indicates potential diagnostic roles of lncRNAs. In addition to working as biomarkers for RA, lncRNAs participate in many specific pathological processes including inflammation, aberrant proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Further screenings and researches are required to validate the clinical potentials of lncRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in RA.
The most attractive structural feature of the three-dimensional (3D) angle-interlock woven structure is that the straight weft yarns are bundled by the undulated warp yarns, which induces the overall good structural stability and a stable fabric structure. Thus the 3-D angle-interlock woven composite (3DAWC) prepared by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) curing process has excellent mechanical properties by using the fabric and epoxy resin as the reinforcement and matrix, respectively. The low-velocity impact damage properties of the composites under different drop-weight energies (70, 80, and 100 J) were tested experimentally. The load–displacement curves, energy–time curves, and the ultimate failure modes were obtained to analyze the performance of resistance to low-velocity impact, as well as the impact energy absorption effect and failure mechanism, especially the structural damage characteristics of the 3DAWC subjected to the low-velocity impact of drop weight. By analyzing the obtained experimental results, it is found that the fabric reinforcement is the primary energy absorption component and the impact energy mainly propagates along the longitudinal direction of the yarns, especially the weft yarn system, which is arranged in a straight way. In addition, as the impact energy increases, the energy absorbed and dissipated by the composite increases simultaneously. This phenomenon is manifested in the severity of deformation and damage of the material, i.e., the amount of deformation and size of the damaged area.
Background. The ether à go-go (Eag) channel has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers. However, the expression and function of Eag in osteosarcoma are poorly understood. In addition, the molecular mechanisms responsible for Eag overexpression in cancer cells remain unclear.
Methods. The expression of Eag in human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The effect of Eag inhibition on MG-63 cell proliferation was assessed in vitro. The effect of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) mediated knockdown of Eag on osteosarcoma growth was evaluated in xenograft model in vivo. The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and p53 in MG-63 cells was detected by Western blot analysis.
Results. Eag was overexpressed in MG-63 cells. Imipramine or Eag shRNA significantly suppressed the proliferation of MG-63 cells in vitro and in vivo. MG-63 cell proliferation was specifically inhibited by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or small interference RNA (siRNA). The inhibition of p38 MAPK activation by SB203580 or siRNA reduced Eag protein level but increased p53 protein level. Moreover, the activation of p53 by nutlin-3 induced cell growth arrest in MG-63 cells and reduced Eag protein level, while the inactivation of p53 by pifithrin-alpha (PFT-α) promoted MG-63 cell growth and increased Eag protein expression.
Conclusions. Eag channel functions as an oncogene to promote the proliferation of human osteosarocma cells. Furthermore, the high expression of Eag in osteosarcoma cells is regulated by p38 MAPK/p53 pathway.
Ultramarathon races are rapidly gaining popularity in several countries, raising interest for the improvement of training programs. The aim of this study was to use a triaxial accelerometer to compare the three-dimensional centerof- mass accelerations of two groups of ultramarathon runners with distinct performances during different running speeds and distances. Ten runners who participated in the 12-h Taipei International Ultramarathon Race underwent laboratory treadmill testing one month later. They were divided into an elite group (EG; n = 5) and a sub-elite group (SG; n = 5). The triaxial center-of-mass acceleration recorded during a level-surface progressive intensity running protocol (3, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 km/h; 5 min each) was used for correlation analyses with running distance during the ultramarathon. The EG showed negative correlations between mediolateral (ML) acceleration (r = −0.83 to −0.93, p < 0.05), and between anterior-posterior (AP) acceleration and running distance (r = −0.8953 to −0.9653, p < 0.05), but not for vertical control of the center of mass. This study suggests that runners reduce stride length to minimize mediolateral sway and the effects of braking on the trunk; moreover, cadence must be increased to reduce braking effects and enhance impetus. Consequently, the competition level of ultramarathons can be elevated.
Obejective Ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate [S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)/Transmetil®, Abbott] has been available in China for more than 15 years, and it has been shown to reduce serum bilirubin and transaminase levels in viral hepatitis (VH) patients. However, no large-scale studies have focused on the impact of SAMe treatment regimen on reducing the serum total bilirubin (TBil) in VH patients with intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous SAMe (Transmetil®) treatment in reducing the serum TBil by 50%.
Methods This retrospective, multi-center, cross-sectional medical record review involved patients aged ≥18 years. Records of 1 280 hospitalized VH patients at 16 sites diagnosed with IHC who had received intravenous SAMe 1 000 mg or 2 000 mg q.d. for at least 7 days from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009, were screened and 905 records were randomly selected.
Results The safety set (SS) included 834 patients and the full analysis set 826 patients. TBil levels after 14 days injection treatment were available for 763 patients. TBil decreased ≥ 50% versus baseline after 14 days treatment in 288 (37.7%) patients (95% CI 34.3%, 41.2%). Twenty-nine non-serious adverse events (non-SAEs) were reported in 19 (2.3%) patients, and 29 SAEs were reported in 10 patients (1.2%). All adverse events (AEs) were considered unrelated to the study drug.
Conclusions This retrospective study shows that intravenous SAMe administration in VH patients with IHC is associated with significant reduction of TBil levels in more than 30% of patients 14 days after treatment initiation.