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Open access

Hong Zhang and Jie Li


A Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) is a special subset of multi-hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks, in which the vehicles wireless interfaces can communicate with each other, as well as with fixed equipments alongside city roads or highways. Vehicular mobility dynamic characteristics, including high speed, predictable, restricted mobility pattern significantly affect the performance of routing protocols in a real VANET. Based on the existing studies, here we propose a testing network according to the preferential attachment on the degree of nodes and analyze VANET model characteristics for finding out the dynamic topology from the instantaneous degree distribution, instantaneous clustering coefficient and average path length. Analysis and simulation results demonstrate that VANET has a small world network features and is characterized by a truncated scale-free degree distribution with power-law degree distribution. The dynamic topology analysis indicates a possible mechanism of VANET, which might be helpful in the traffic congestion, safety and management.

Open access

Ning Jia, Yunwen Ou, Zygmunt Pejsak, Yongguang Zhang and Jie Zhang


African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus and the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. ASFV infects domestic pigs, wild boars, warthogs, and bush pigs, as well as soft ticks (Ornithodoros erraticus), which likely act as a vector. The major target is swine monocyte-macrophage cells. The virus can cause high fever, haemorrhagic lesions, cyanosis, anorexia, and even fatalities in domestic pigs. Currently, there is no vaccine and effective disease control strategies against its spread are culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards. African swine fever (ASF) spread to Europe from Africa in the middle of the 20th century, and later also to South America and the Caribbean. Since then, ASF has spread more widely and thus is still a great challenge for swine breeding. The genome of ASFV ranges in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames (ORFs). The ASFV genome encodes 150 to 200 proteins, around 50 of them structural. The roles of virus structural proteins in viral infection have been described. These proteins, such as pp220, pp62, p72, p54, p30, and CD2v, serve as the major component of virus particles and have roles in attachment, entry, and replication. All studies on ASFV proteins lay a good foundation upon which to clarify the infection mechanism and develop vaccines and diagnosis methods. In this paper, the roles of ASFV structural proteins in viral infection are reviewed.

Open access

Jie Wang, Chengzhi Zhang, Mengying Zhang and Sanhong Deng



This study aims to build an automatic survey generation tool, named CitationAS, based on citation content as represented by the set of citing sentences in the original articles.


Firstly, we apply LDA to analyse topic distribution of citation content. Secondly, in CitationAS, we use bisecting K-means, Lingo and STC to cluster retrieved citation content. Then Word2Vec, WordNet and combination of them are applied to generate cluster labels. Next, we employ TF-IDF, MMR, as well as considering sentence location information, to extract important sentences, which are used to generate surveys. Finally, we adopt manual evaluation for the generated surveys.


In experiments, we choose 20 high-frequency phrases as search terms. Results show that Lingo-Word2Vec, STC-WordNet and bisecting K-means-Word2Vec have better clustering effects. In 5 points evaluation system, survey quality scores obtained by designing methods are close to 3, indicating surveys are within acceptable limits. When considering sentence location information, survey quality will be improved. Combination of Lingo, Word2Vec, TF-IDF or MMR can acquire higher survey quality.

Research limitations

The manual evaluation method may have a certain subjectivity. We use a simple linear function to combine Word2Vec and WordNet that may not bring out their strengths. The generated surveys may not contain some newly created knowledge of some articles which may concentrate on sentences with no citing.

Practical implications

CitationAS tool can automatically generate a comprehensive, detailed and accurate survey according to user’s search terms. It can also help researchers learn about research status in a certain field.


CitaitonAS tool is of practicability. It merges cluster labels from semantic level to improve clustering results. The tool also considers sentence location information when calculating sentence score by TF-IDF and MMR.

Open access

Jie Chen, Jie Liu, Xingrui Wang, Longfei Zhang, Xiao Deng, Xinbin Cheng and Tongbao Li


Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

Open access

Lingjun Cui, Baoping Wang, Jie Qiao and Jianguo Zhang


Paulownia Siebold et Zucc., a widely distributed native genus, has been commonly used in the furniture. The color of wood is a very important aesthetical property, and it has a fundamental influence on the commercial value of timbers. Therefore, it is critical for forest managers to select elite Paulownia clones based on the color of wood. Eighteen 5-year-old Paulownia clones grown in a hilly area in Hubei Province, China were examined in terms of color values (L*, a*, b*), color difference (ΔE*), and Hunter lab space whiteness (W) using a Chroma meter CR-400. Differences in color parameters among the 18 clones were analyzed and clustered. The results showed that the ranges of L*, a*, b*, ΔE*, and W were 77.19-80.38, 3.60-4.84, 13.79-15.69, 17.92-21.37, and 68.92-72.42, respectively. The color parameters significantly differed among the examined clones. Differential and cluster analyses indicated that clones 204, 605, 702, and 603 had higher L*, W, and lower ΔE*, rendering these as elite clones with superior color properties.

Open access

Dandan Zhu, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao and Jie Zhang


In this study, a new detection algorithm for yarn-dyed fabric defect based on autocorrelation function and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is put forward. First, autocorrelation function is used to determine the pattern period of yarn-dyed fabric and according to this, the size of detection window can be obtained. Second, GLCMs are calculated with the specified parameters to characterise the original image. Third, Euclidean distances of GLCMs between being detected images and template image, which is selected from the defect-free fabric, are computed and then the threshold value is given to realise the defect detection. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this study can achieve accurate detection of common defects of yarn-dyed fabric, such as the wrong weft, weft crackiness, stretched warp, oil stain and holes.

Open access

Hui Hua, Xiaoping Zhang, Dan Li, Jie Zou and Zhongwei Lv


Background: Ablizia julibrissin could inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of the compositions Julibroside J8 and J12 on the angiogenesis are still poorly understood.

Objective: We compared the pharmacodynamics of julibroside J8 and J12 in inhibiting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: Julibroside J8 and J12 were separated from the crude extract of Ablizia julibrissin. The effects of julibroside J8 and julibroside J12 on growth, migration, and matrigel tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were explored. In addition, the in vivo anti-angiogenic effect of julibroside J8 and J12 was evaluated on a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM).

Results: HMEC-1 cells showed dose-dependent inhibition of growth, migration, and tube formation, when treated with 0.5-4 μg/ml julibroside J8 or 0.1-0.5 μg/ml julibroside J12 respectively. The formation of microvessels on CAM was also inhibited by julibroside J8 or julibroside J12 at concentrations of 10-100 μg.egg-1 or 5-50 μg.egg-1 respectively.

Conclusion: Julibroside J12 confers more potent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis than julibroside J8 does.