Morphological characteristics of ripples are analyzed considering bed surfaces as two dimensional random fields of bed elevations. Two equilibrium phases are analyzed with respect to successive development of ripples based on digital elevation models. The key findings relate to the shape of the two dimensional second-order structure functions and multiscaling behavior revealed by higher-order structure functions. Our results suggest that (1) the two dimensional second-order structure functions can be used to differentiate the two equilibrium phases of ripples; and (2) in contrast to the elevational time series of ripples that exhibit significant multiscaling behavior, the DEMs of ripples at both equilibrium phases do not exhibit multiscaling behavior.
Polypropylene/carbon nanotubes (PP/CNTs) nancomposites were prepared with a single screw extruder by adding maleic anhydride-grafted poplypropylene (PP-g-MAH) as compatibilizer to polypropylene (PP) with different amounts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the range of 0.1–0.7 wt.%. Structure and morphology of the prepared samples were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarizing light microscopy (PLM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that PP spherulites decreased in size when CNTs were introduced into the polymer. Mechanical properties of the samples were also studied. Tensile tests showed that with increasing amount of CNTs the strain at break decreased whereas the Young’s modulus was improved of 16.41 % to 36.05 % and tensile strength of 36.67 % to 64.70 % compared to pristine PP. The SEM microphotographs showed that majority of the CNTs were dispersed individually and oriented along the shear flow direction.
Objective: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on GRP78 and Caspase-12 gene expression in rats with ischemia- reperfusion injury (IRI) by stimulation on Nei Guan (PC6) and Bai Hui (GV20) points, so that to understand whether or not the protective effects of acupuncture is related to endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressapoptosis passage.
Methods: 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups (10 in each group): normal control(A), pseudo-operation(B), operation(C), Edaravone(D) and EA(E). The ischemia/reperfusion model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established by suture embolic method. TUNEL staining method was employed to measure the apoptosis index of nerve cells in rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to measure the mRNA expression of GRP78 and Caspase-12.
Results: Compared with normal group and pseudo-operation group, the apoptosis indexes and mRNA expression of GRP78 and Caspase-12 in operation group, Edaravone group and EA group were increased, with statistical significance（P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）; compared with operation group, the apoptosis indexes and Caspase-12 mRNA expression in Edaravone group and EA group were decreased（P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）, but GRP78 mRNA expression were increased（P＜0.01）; there were no significant difference between Edaravone group and EA group on the above indexes（P＞0.05).
Conclusion: Acupuncture on Nei Guan and Bai Hui points could effectively suppress the nerve cell apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. The underlying mechanism might be related to upregulation of the ERS-protective GRP78 expression and downregulation of apoptosis-promotion Caspase-12 expression.
In this study, the effect of four xyloketals 1-4 on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) was investigated in primary distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from mice. The results showed that xyloketal A (1), an unusual ketal with C-3 symmetry, exhibited strong SOCE blocking activity. Secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by xyloketal A. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) of 1-4 suggested that these xyloketals penetrated easily through the cell membrane. Moreover, the molecular docking study of xyloketal A with activation region of the stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and the calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) 1 (STIM1-ORAI1) protein complex, the key domain of SOCE, revealed that xyloketal A exhibited a noncovalent interaction with the key residue lysine 363 (LYS363) in the identified cytosolic regions in STIM1-C. These findings provided useful information about xyloketal A as a SOCE inhibitor for further evaluation.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.
Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.