Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements on cells is a proven method to assess stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell regenerative medicine (CRM) is an emerging field where the need to develop and deploy stem cell assessment techniques is paramount as experimental treatments reach pre-clinical and clinical stages. However, EIS measurements on cells is a method requiring extensive post-processing and analysis. As a contribution to address this concern, we developed three machine learning models for three different stem cell lines able to classify the measured data as proliferation or differentiation laying the stone for future studies on using machine learning to profile EIS measurements on stem cells spectra.
To review the definition and scope of the practice of midwives in Sweden, Finland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia to find models and make suggestions for reforms in the midwifery policies of China.
This article reviewed the midwifery policies published by authorities, organizations, and governments of these countries and relevant literature in the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang database.
The definition and scope of practice of midwives in five representative countries and China were reviewed. The similarities and differences in midwifery policies among them show that most countries set standards based on the definition and scope of practice of midwives recommended by International Confederation of Midwives.
The definition of midwives should include registration, midwifery education, and acceptance standards. The scope of practice of midwives should specify an autonomous environment, the objective of care, the period of care involved, prescribing rights, emergency treatment, and health counseling.
Chun Xie, Yi-Xuan Hou, Yu-Ting Zhao, Xue-Hui Cai, Cai-Ying Li, Pei-Feng Li, Yun-Zhang Li, Xue Su, Xiu-Wei Yue, Shu-Jie Wang, Yong-Gang Liu, Wei-Jun Yang, Cong-Li Yuan, Li Cu, Xiu-Guo Hua and Zhi-Biao Yang
Five pathogen-free miniature pigs (minipigs) were infected with the virulent strain SH08 of Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) by intramuscular injection. The pigs died consecutively within 72 h after the challenge. An additional five non-infected pigs were euthanised and used as controls. Microstructural observations showed that degeneration, bleeding, congestion, cellular necrosis, and an increase in inflammatory cells were present in all organs and tissues except the brain. Ultrastructural observations revealed mitochondrial vacuolation and malformed or missing cristae, indicating that infection of minipigs with strain SH08 of SS2 can lead to extensive lesions in major internal organs and tissues. The findings also demonstrated that the minipig is a useful model for the study of SS2 infection.