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Open access

Guan Xu, Xiaotao Li, Jian Su, Rong Chen and Jianfang Liu

A Method for the Estimation of the Square Size in the Chessboard Image using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix

The paper proposes a new simple procedure for measuring the square size employing the gray-level co-occurrence matrix of a chessboard image. As the size of the square structure in a chessboard image provides the geometric constraint information among the corners, it is available to improve the precision of extracting corners and serve the camera calibration. The co-occurrence matrix of a chessboard image is constructed to obtain the statistic information of the grayscale distribution. The 2D offset of the matrix is parameterized to calculate the correlation which is regarded as the implication of the repetition probability of the similar textures. A descending tendency is observed in the experiments because the similarity decreases with the greater offset. However, minimum and maximum are captured in the correlation curve, which represents that the square texture reappears with the periods of one and two square size, separately. The size of the square is tested by applying the first minimum of the correlation. The experiments are performed on the horizontal and vertical directions which are corresponding to the length and the width of the square, respectively. The experiments prove that the described method has the potential to measure square size of the chessboard.

Open access

Dongliang Su, Jian Wu, Zhiming Cui, Victor S. Sheng and Shengrong Gong

This paper proposes a novel invariant local descriptor, a combination of gradient histograms with contrast intensity (CGCI), for image matching and object recognition. Considering the different contributions of sub-regions inside a local interest region to an interest point, we divide the local interest region around the interest point into two main sub-regions: an inner region and a peripheral region. Then we describe the divided regions with gradient histogram information for the inner region and contrast intensity information for the peripheral region respectively. The contrast intensity information is defined as intensity difference between an interest point and other pixels in the local region. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed descriptor performs better than SIFT and its variants PCA-SIFT and SURF with various optical and geometric transformations. It also has better matching efficiency than SIFT and its variants PCA-SIFT and SURF, and has the potential to be used in a variety of realtime applications.

Open access

Guan Xu, Xinyuan Zhang, Xiaotao Li, Jian Su and Zhaobing Hao


We present a reliable calibration method using the constraint of 2D projective lines and 3D world points to elaborate the accuracy of the camera calibration. Based on the relationship between the 3D points and the projective plane, the constraint equations of the transformation matrix are generated from the 3D points and 2D projective lines. The transformation matrix is solved by the singular value decomposition. The proposed method is compared with the point-based calibration to verify the measurement validity. The mean values of the root-mean-square errors using the proposed method are 7.69×10−4, 6.98×10−4, 2.29×10−4, and 1.09×10−3 while the ones of the original method are 8.10×10−4, 1.29×10−2, 2.58×10−2, and 8.12×10−3. Moreover, the average logarithmic errors of the calibration method are evaluated and compared with the former method in different Gaussian noises and projective lines. The variances of the average errors using the proposed method are 1.70×10−5, 1.39×10−4, 1.13×10−4, and 4.06×10−4, which indicates the stability and accuracy of the method.

Open access

Jian Wu, Zhiming Cui, Victor S. Sheng, Pengpeng Zhao, Dongliang Su and Shengrong Gong

SIFT is an image local feature description algorithm based on scale-space. Due to its strong matching ability, SIFT has many applications in different fields, such as image retrieval, image stitching, and machine vision. After SIFT was proposed, researchers have never stopped tuning it. The improved algorithms that have drawn a lot of attention are PCA-SIFT, GSIFT, CSIFT, SURF and ASIFT. In this paper, we first systematically analyze SIFT and its variants. Then, we evaluate their performance in different situations: scale change, rotation change, blur change, illumination change, and affine change. The experimental results show that each has its own advantages. SIFT and CSIFT perform the best under scale and rotation change. CSIFT improves SIFT under blur change and affine change, but not illumination change. GSIFT performs the best under blur change and illumination change. ASIFT performs the best under affine change. PCA-SIFT is always the second in different situations. SURF performs the worst in different situations, but runs the fastest.

Open access

Elizabeth M. Pontedeiro, Paulo F. Heilbron, Jesus Perez-Guerrero, Jian Su and Martinus Th. van Genuchten


In September 1987 an accident occurred with a cesium chloride (CsCl) teletherapy source taken from a cancer therapy institute in Goiânia, Brazil. Misuse of the abandoned source caused widespread contamination of radioactive material (about 50 TBq of 137Cs) in the town of Goiânia. Decontamination of affected areas did lead to about 3,500 m3 of solid radioactive wastes, which were disposed in two near-surface repositories built in concrete in 1995. This paper documents a safety assessment of one of the low-level radioactive waste deposits containing 137Cs over a time period of 600 years. Using HYDRUS-1D, we first obtained estimates of water infiltrating through the soil cover on top of the repository into and through the waste and its concrete liners and the underlying vadose zone towards groundwater. Calculations accounted for local precipitation and evapotranspiration rates, including root water uptake by the grass cover, as well as for the effects of concrete degradation on the hydraulic properties of the concrete liners. We next simulated long-term water fluxes and 137Cs transport from the repository towards groundwater. Simulations accounted for the effects of 137Cs sorption and radioactive decay on radionuclide transport from the waste to groundwater, thus permitting an evaluation of potential consequences to the environment and long-term exposure to the public. Consistent with previous assessments, our calculations indicate that very little if any radioactive material will reach the water table during the lifespan of the repository, also when accounting for preferential flow through the waste.

Open access

Chih-Yen Tu, Te-Chun Hsia, Hsin-Yuan Fang, Ji-An Liang, Su-Tso Yang, Chia-Chin Li and Chun-Ru Chien



Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a promising option for non-operated early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT). However, results from conclusive randomized controlled trials are not yet available. The aim of our study was to explore the effectiveness of SABR vs. CFRT for non-operated early-stage NSCLC.

Patients and methods

We used a comprehensive population-based database to identify clinical stage I non-operated NSCLC patients in Taiwan diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 who were treated with either SABR or CFRT. We used inverse probability weighting and the propensity score as the primary form of analysis to address the nonrandomization of treatment. In the supplementary analyses, we constructed subgroups based on propensity score matching to compare survival between patients treated with SABR vs. CFRT.


We identified 238 patients in our primary analysis. A good balance of covariates was achieved using the propensity score weighting. Overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between those treated with SABR vs. CFRT (SABR vs. CFRT: probability weighting adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.586, 95% confidence interval 0.264–1.101, p = 0.102). However, SABR was significantly favored in supplementary analyses.


In this population-based propensity-score adjusted analysis, we found that OS was not significantly different between those treated with SABR vs. CFRT in the primary analysis, although significance was observed in the supplementary analyses. Our results should be interpreted with caution given the database (i.e., nonrandomized) approach used in our study. Overall, further studies are required to explore these issues.

Open access

Guang-Quan Chen, Liang Yi, Xing-Yong Xu, Hong-Jun Yu, Jian-Rong Cao, Qiao Su, Lin-Hai Yang, Yong-Hang Xu, Jun-Yi Ge and Zhong-Ping Lai


It has been suggested that the standardized growth curve (SGC) method can be used to accurately determinate equivalent dose (De) and reduce measurement time. However, different opinions regarding the applicability of the SGC method exist. In this paper, we evaluated quartz OSL SGCs of marine and coastal sediments of different grain sizes and different cores in the south Bohai Sea in China, and tested their applicability to the determination of De values. Our results suggested as follows: (1) The SGC method is applicable to both multiple- and single-aliquot regenerative-dose (MAR and SAR) protocols of OSL dating and efficiently provides reliable estimates of De. (2) Finesand quartz of different palaeodoses showed highly similar dose-response curves and an SGC was developed, but old samples using the SGC method have large uncertainties. (3) For coarse-silt quartz, two different types of dose-response curves were recorded: low-dose (≤60Gy) and high-dose (≥100Gy). The growth curves of low-dose quartz were similar to each other, facilitating the use of SGC in De estimations, but errors tended to be larger than those obtained in the SAR method. For high-dose (100–300Gy) quartz, the SGC was also found to be reliable, but there was large uncertainty in De (>300Gy) estimation. We suggest that SGC could be employed for the dating of marine and coastal sediments dating using either MAR or SAR OSL protocol and either fine-silt, coarse-silt or fine-sand quartz.