The collection of ancient coins of the Palacký University in Olomouc is recently preserved in the department of history there. It is very likely that the collection was founded sometimes between the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century – no details are known about it and the collection became the university property evidently after 1946. The core of the Olomouc collection is represented by denarii dating back to 154–74 BC (cat. nos. 3–69). Only individual pieces of the earlier issues (cat. nos. 1–2) and the later issues (cat. nos. 70–72) are present here. Publication of this collection could be accepted as a small contribution to documentation of the physically verified material of the mentioned period. Parallelly, it is an interesting testimony of the collecting activities in Olomouc at the break of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Flex fatigue behaviour of plastic optical fibres (POFs) with the diameters of 0.2 and 0.3 mm under different pretensions is measured with fatigue life curve by flexometer. The fatigue sensitivity coefficient is calculated by the linear fitting curve of normalised stress versus logarithm of bending cycles. The residual modulus is investigated during the flex fatigue processes. The results exhibit the exponential relationship between applied pretension and numbers of bending cycles at break. It is indicated that the flex fatigue of POFs might be sensitive with high swing angle or swing speed. There is an evident loss of modulus for two POFs with pretensions of 4 and 10% of ultimate tensile strength during 10-times bending cycles. The values of residual modulus of two POFs almost keep constant after 10-times bending cycles.
Effective thermal conductivity (ETC) is a very important index for evaluating the thermal property of heterogeneous
materials, which include more than two different kinds of materials. Several analytical models were proposed for
predicting the ETC of heterogeneous materials, but in some cases, these models cannot provide very accurate
predictions. In this work, several analytical models and numerical simulations were studied in order to investigate
the differences among them. In addition, some factors which would influence the ETC of heterogeneous materials
were investigated by numerical simulation. The results demonstrated that the numerical simulation can provide
very accurate prediction, indicated that different analytical models should be selected to predict specific problems
based on their assumptions, and suggested that more variables need to be considered in order to improve these
analytical models, such as inclusion shape, inclusion size, distribution of inclusions and contact area. Besides,
numerical method could be an effective and reliable way to obtain the ETC of heterogeneous materials with any
kind of complicated structures.
CO2 laser treatment can increase the surface roughness of plastic optical fibres (POFs) with the diameter of 0.5 mm and enhance the input intensity and attenuation coefficient accordingly, which is supposed to weaken the side emission of POFs in long distance above 375 mm. TiO2 particles were applied to improve the increasing optical loss of POFs by laser treatment. POFs were first modified with fine TiO2 particles and then treated by CO2 laser with the pixel time from 30 to 120 ìs. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the changes of micro-structure before and after laser treatment and the distribution of TiO2 particles. The illumination intensity and attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared in two methods. It is visible that the evaluation by model LLF2 with two parts is more suitable for the fitting of experimental data and shows higher input intensity and lower attenuation than that by standard power function. Both the evaluation methods exhibit that the utilization of TiO2 particles could play an active role in the enhancement of side emission of POFs treated by CO2 laser.
Air permeability is one of the most important properties of non-woven fabrics in many applications. This paper aims to investigate the effects of thickness, porosity and density on the air permeability of needle-punched non-woven fabrics and compare the experimental values with two models which are based on hydraulic radius theory and drag theory, respectively. The air permeability of the samples was measured by an air permeability tester FX3300. The results showed that the air permeability of non-woven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness and density of samples, increased with the increase of porosity, and the air permeability was not directly proportional to the pressure gradient. Meanwhile, the prediction model based on hydraulic radius theory had a better agreement with experimental values than the model based on drag theory, but the values were much higher than the experimental results, especially for higher porosity and higher pressure gradient.
The air flow and conjugate heat transfer through the fabric was investigated numerically. The objective of this paper is to study the thermal insulation of fabrics under heat convection or the heat loss of human body under different conditions (fabric structure and contact conditions between the human skin and the fabric). The numerical simulations were performed in laminar flow regime at constant skin temperature (310 K) and constant air flow temperature (273 K) at a speed of 5 m/s. Some important parameters such as heat flux through the fabrics, heat transfer coefficient, and Nusselt number were evaluated. The results showed that the heat loss from human body (the heat transfer coefficient) was smallest or the thermal insulation of fabric was highest when the fabric had no pores and no contact with the human skin, the heat loss from human body (the heat transfer coefficient) was highest when the fabric had pores and the air flow penetrated through the fabric.
The limitation of aramid fiber is its surface property, which results in its very poor interfacial adhesion to most of commercial resins. In order to improve the surface property of the aramid fiber, ozone treatment was carried out in this work. The aramid fabrics were evaluated in terms of surface morphology, wicking effect, tensile property, and ball bursting test. The results showed that the surface morphology of aramid fabrics did not undergo an obvious change; the wicking effect increased slightly with an increase in ozone treatment time; the tenacity and elongation of aramid fibers and fabrics did not significant change after ozone treatment, but the tenacity and elongation of aramid yarns showed significant improvement after ozone treatment, and increased with the increase of ozone treatment time; the ball bursting load and penetration displacement had a slight increase as well after ozone treatment. Therefore, ozone treatment could be one method to improve the surface property of the aramid fiber.
The quest for sound-absorbing materials that are not only environmentally friendly, but also sustainable is the foremost reason for natural fibre-acoustic materials. Bark cloth is a natural non-woven fabric that is largely produced from Ficus trees. An exploratory investigation of bark cloth a non-woven material and its reinforcement in epoxy polymer composites has been fabricated and investigated for the sound absorption properties so as to find the most suitable applications and also to see whether bark cloth can be used in some applications in place of man-made fibres. Three types of material species were investigated with their respective composites. The fibre morphology showed bark cloth to be a porous fabric that showed promising sound absorption properties at higher frequencies. The sound absorption results of four-layer material selections of Ficus natalensis, Ficus brachypoda and Antiaris toxicaria bark cloth showed sound absorption coefficient of 0.7; 0.71 and 0.91 at f > 6400 Hz, respectively. The bark cloth reinforced laminar epoxy composites had reduced sound absorption coefficients, which ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, which was attributed to decreased porosity and vibration in the bark cloth fibre network.
Thermal performance of aerogel-embedded polyester/polyethylene nonwoven fabrics in cross airflow was experimentally studied by using a laboratory-built dynamic heat transfer measuring device in which the fabric could be applied on a heating rod. Experiments were performed with different airflow velocities and heating conditions. The temperature–time histories of different materials were collected and compared. The temperature difference and convective heat transfer coefficient under continuous heating were analyzed and discussed. Results showed that under preheated conditions, the aerogel-embedded nonwoven fabrics had very small decrease in temperature and good ability to prevent against heat loss in cross flow. As for the continuous heating conditions, the heat transfer rate of each material showed an increasing trend with increase in the Reynolds number. The aerogel-treated nonwoven fabric with the least fabric thickness and aerogel content delivered a significantly increased heat transfer rate at higher Reynolds number. Thicker fabrics with higher aerogel content could provide better insulation ability in cross flow.
In this study, polypropylene meltblown nonwoven fabrics with different structure parameters such as fiber diameter, pore size, and areal density were prepared by the industrial production line. The morphology of meltblown nonwoven fibers was evaluated by using scanning electron microscope, and the diameter of fibers was analyzed by using image-pro plus software from at least 200 measurements. The pore size of nonwoven fabric was characterized by a CFP-1500AE type pore size analyzer. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop were evaluated by TSI8130 automatic filter. The results showed that the pressure drop of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in pore size; the filtration efficiency and the pressure drop had a positive correlation with the areal density. However, when the areal density is in the range of 27–29 g/m2, both filtration efficiency and pressure drop decreased with the increase of areal density; when the areal density was kept constant, the filtration efficiency decreased as the pore size decreased; when the pore size of the meltblown nonwoven fabric is less than 17 μm, the filtration efficiency increased as the pore diameter decreased; when the pore diameter of the nonwoven fabric is larger than 17 μm. In a wide range, the pressure drop decreased as the fiber diameter decreased.