One of the ways of improving the attractiveness of public transport is to bring it closer to its potential users. A long walking distance from a stop is often one of the critical factors limiting its more frequent and extensive use. Studies dealing with the accessibility of transport networks usually work only with the closest stop. This article analyses the actual walking distance from the place of residence to the preferred stop. The survey used a questionnaire method and was conducted in two cities in the Czech Republic—Ostrava and Olomouc. Based on the results of the study, the average walking distance was assessed and the impact of demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, number of members in the household, economic activity, the presence of a child in the household, and car ownership), transport behavior (preferred mode of transportation, car convenience and opinions on public transport), and urban characteristics (prevailing housing type) on the walking distance were analyzed. The main findings prove a significant impact on walking distance by a number of these factors, but the preferred use of a car for commuting or unemployment does not significantly affect walking distance.
Ashes were prepared by annealing selected types of solid fuels (biomass: corn cobs, sunflower husks, olive pomace, hay pellets and rice husks; coal: lignite and bituminous; and alternative fuel: paper sludge) at different temperatures (550°C, 815°C and 975°C). Based on X-ray fluorescence spectra, the slagging/fouling indexes were used to study the effects of the type of ash and the ashing temperature on the ash fouling and slagging properties. Slagging indexes were compared with the ash fusion temperatures. Ash fusion temperatures were measured by a LECO AF-700. The lowest deformation temperature (below 1000°C) was seen for the ashes prepared from hay pellets and corn cobs. On the other hand, the deformation temperature exceeded 1500°C for ashes prepared from paper sludge, sunflower husks and rice husks. By calculating the different slagging/fouling indexes, all the ashes exhibited slagging/fouling problems of varying degrees.