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Open access

Jiří Šimůnek, Miroslav Šejna and Martinus Th. van Genuchten

Abstract

The capabilities of the HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D) software packages continuously expanded during the last two decades. Various new capabilities were added recently to both software packages, mostly by developing new standard add-on modules such as HPx, C-Ride, UnsatChem, Wetland, Fumigant, DualPerm, and Slope Stability. The new modules may be used to simulate flow and transport processes in one- and two-dimensional transport domains and are fully supported by the HYDRUS graphical user interface (GUI). Several nonstandard add-on modules, such as Overland, Isotope, and Centrifuge, have also been developed, but are not fully supported by the HYDRUS GUI. The objective of this manuscript is to describe several additional features of the upcoming Version 3 of HYDRUS (2D/3D), which was unveiled at a recent (March 2017) HYDRUS conference and workshop in Prague. The new features include a flexible reservoir boundary condition, expanded root growth features, and new graphical capabilities of the GUI. Mathematical descriptions of the new features are provided, as well as two examples illustrating applications of the reservoir boundary condition.

Open access

Jiří Šimůnek, Martinus Th. van Genuchten and Radka Kodešová

Open access

Mohammad Nakhaei and Jiří Šimůnek

Abstract

Knowledge of soil hydraulic and thermal properties is essential for studies involving the combined effects of soil temperature and water input on water flow and redistribution processes under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the parameters characterizing these properties from a transient water flow and heat transport field experiment. Real-time sensors built by the authors were used to monitor soil temperatures at depths of 40, 80, 120, and 160 cm during a 10-hour long ring infiltration experiment. Water temperatures and cumulative infiltration from a single infiltration ring were monitored simultaneously. The soil hydraulic parameters (the saturated water content θ s, empirical shape parameters α and n, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks) and soil thermal conductivity parameters (coefficients b1, b2, and b3 in the thermal conductivity function) were estimated from cumulative infiltration and temperature measurements by inversely solving a two-dimensional water flow and heat transport using HYDRUS-2D. Three scenarios with a different, sequentially decreasing number of optimized parameters were considered. In scenario 1, seven parameters (θ s, Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3) were included in the inverse problem. The results indicated that this scenario does not provide a unique solution. In scenario 2, six parameters (Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3) were included in the inverse problem. The results showed that this scenario also results in a non-unique solution. Only scenario 3, in which five parameters (α, n, b1, b2, and b3) were included in the inverse problem, provided a unique solution. The simulated soil temperatures and cumulative infiltration during the ring infiltration experiment compared reasonably well with their corresponding observed values.

Open access

Erij Ben Slimene, Laurent Lassabatere, Jiří Šimůnek, Thierry Winiarski and Remy Gourdon

Abstract

An understanding of preferential flow in the vadose zone is crucial for the prediction of the fate of pollutants. Infiltration basins, developed to mitigate the adverse effects of impervious surfaces in urban areas, are established above strongly heterogeneous and highly permeable deposits and thus are prone to preferential flow and enhanced pollutant transport. This study numerically investigates the establishment of preferential flow in an infiltration basin in the Lyon suburbs (France) established over a highly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit covering much of the Lyon region. An investigation of the soil transect (13.5 m long and 2.5 m deep) provided full characterization of lithology and hydraulic properties of present lithofacies. Numerical modeling with the HYDRUS-2D model of water flow in the transect was used to identify the effects of individual lithofacies that constitute the deposit. Multiple scenarios that considered different levels of heterogeneity were evaluated. Preferential flow was studied for several values of infiltration rates applied after a long dry period. The numerical study shows that the high contrast in hydraulic properties of different lithofacies triggers the establishment of preferential flow (capillary barriers and funneled flow). Preferential flow develops mainly for low water fluxes imposed at the surface. The role of individual lithofacies in triggering preferential flow depends on their shapes (layering versus inclusions) and their sizes. While lenses and inclusions produce preferential flow pathways, the presence of the surface layer has no effect on the development of preferential flow and it only affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the heterogeneous transect.

Open access

Akmal Kh. Karimov, Munir A. Hanjra, Jiří Šimůnek and Botir Abdurakhmannov

Abstract

The study examines possible water savings by replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley, located upstream of the Syrdarya River in Central Asia. Agricultural reforms since the 1990s have promoted this change in cropping patterns in the Central Asian states to enhance food security and social benefits. The water use of alfalfa, winter wheat/fallow, and winter wheat/green gram (double cropping) systems is compared for high-deficit, low-deficit, and full irrigation scenarios using hydrological modeling with the HYDRUS-1D software package. Modeling results indicate that replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley released significant water resources, mainly by reducing productive crop transpiration when abandoning alfalfa in favor of alternative cropping systems. However, the winter wheat/fallow cropping system caused high evaporation losses from fallow land after harvesting of winter wheat. Double cropping (i.e., the cultivation of green gram as a short duration summer crop after winter wheat harvesting) reduced evaporation losses, enhanced crop output and hence food security, while generating water savings that make more water available for other productive uses. Beyond water savings, this paper also discusses the economic and social gains that double cropping produces for the public within a broader developmental context.

Open access

Diederik Jacques, Jiří Šimůnek, Dirk Mallants and Martinus Th. van Genuchten

Abstract

HPx is a multicomponent reactive transport model which uses HYDRUS as the flow and transport solver and PHREEQC-3 as the biogeochemical solver. Some recent adaptations have significantly increased the flexibility of the software for different environmental and engineering applications. This paper gives an overview of the most significant changes of HPx, such as coupling transport properties to geochemical state variables, gas diffusion, and transport in two and three dimensions. OpenMP allows for parallel computing using shared memory. Enhancements for scripting may eventually simplify input definitions and create possibilities for defining templates for generic (sub)problems. We included a discussion of root solute uptake and colloid-affected solute transport to show that most or all of the comprehensive features of HYDRUS can be extended with geochemical information. Finally, an example is used to demonstrate how HPx, and similar reactive transport models, can be helpful in implementing different factors relevant for soil organic matter dynamics in soils. HPx offers a unique framework to couple spatial-temporal variations in water contents, temperatures, and water fluxes, with dissolved organic matter and CO2 transport, as well as bioturbation processes.