Introduction: Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), is one of the most important diseases of cattle worldwide. The purpose of the study was to determine the BVDV infection status in a dairy herd vaccinated against BVD. Before vaccination started in 2008, there had been no prior identification or the removal of the possible source of infection (persistently infected animals). It was expected that vaccination itself would enable the elimination of viral shedders on a long term basis. Material and Methods: Serological screening for antibodies against BVDV with determination for antibodies titres, BVDV antigen, and the presence of the viral genome with phylogenetic analysis of positive samples in the herd were performed, despite the lack of any clinical problems indicating possible presence of BVDV infection. Results: 19 individuals persistently infected with BVDV were identified among calves and heifers but not in adult cattle. All virus shedders were antibody negative and the genotype of isolated virus was BVDV-1b, indicating a single source of infection. The vaccine used in the herd was composed of BVDV-1a strain. In each of the tested cowsheds, antibody titres against BVDV-1b were higher than against BVDV-1a (median values). Conclusion: Despite a long-lasting vaccination programme and relatively high sequence homology of vaccinal and field strains of BVDV (83.6%), it was not possible to avoid transplacental infections of foetuses and the birth of persistently infected calves from vaccinated heifers although the protection against clinical disease was accomplished.