Introduction: Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), is one of the most important diseases of cattle worldwide. The purpose of the study was to determine the BVDV infection status in a dairy herd vaccinated against BVD. Before vaccination started in 2008, there had been no prior identification or the removal of the possible source of infection (persistently infected animals). It was expected that vaccination itself would enable the elimination of viral shedders on a long term basis. Material and Methods: Serological screening for antibodies against BVDV with determination for antibodies titres, BVDV antigen, and the presence of the viral genome with phylogenetic analysis of positive samples in the herd were performed, despite the lack of any clinical problems indicating possible presence of BVDV infection. Results: 19 individuals persistently infected with BVDV were identified among calves and heifers but not in adult cattle. All virus shedders were antibody negative and the genotype of isolated virus was BVDV-1b, indicating a single source of infection. The vaccine used in the herd was composed of BVDV-1a strain. In each of the tested cowsheds, antibody titres against BVDV-1b were higher than against BVDV-1a (median values). Conclusion: Despite a long-lasting vaccination programme and relatively high sequence homology of vaccinal and field strains of BVDV (83.6%), it was not possible to avoid transplacental infections of foetuses and the birth of persistently infected calves from vaccinated heifers although the protection against clinical disease was accomplished.
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) identifies random viral fragments in environmental samples metagenomically. High reliability gains it broad application in virus evolution, host-virus interaction, and pathogenicity studies. Deep sequencing of field samples with content of host genetic material and bacteria often produces insufficient data for metagenomics and must be preceded by target enrichment. The main goal of the study was the evaluation of HTS for complete genome sequencing of field-case rabies viruses (RABVs).
Material and Methods
The material was 23 RABVs isolated mainly from red foxes and one European bat lyssavirus-1 isolate propagated in neuroblastoma cells. Three methods of RNA isolation were tested for the direct metagenomics and RABV-enriched approaches. Deep sequencing was performed with a MiSeq sequencer (Illumina) and reagent v3 kit. Bioinformatics data were evaluated by Kraken and Centrifuge software and de novo assembly was done with metaSPAdes.
Testing RNA extraction procedures revealed the deep sequencing scope superiority of the combined TRIzol/column method. This HTS methodology made it possible to obtain complete genomes of all the RABV isolates collected in the field. Significantly greater rates of RABV genome coverages (over 5,900) were obtained with RABV enrichment. Direct metagenomic studies sequenced the full length of 6 out of 16 RABV isolates with a medium coverage between 1 and 71.
Direct metagenomics gives the most realistic illustration of the field sample microbiome, but with low coverage. For deep characterisation of viruses, e.g. for spatial and temporal phylogeography during outbreaks, target enrichment is recommended as it covers sequences much more completely.
The variability of the ORF2a, ORF2b, ORF3, and ORF4 genes of the equine arteritis virus (EAV) was analysed during a seven year observation of persistent infection in a stallion of the Malopolska breed. A total of 11 semen samples were collected between 2004 and 2011. RNA of EAV isolates obtained from the semen of the stallion was amplified, sequenced, and compared with the sequences of other strains available in GenBank. Multiple nucleotide substitutions were found in sequences of the analysed regions, however, neither deletion nor insertions were detected. The highest number of point mutations (11-6 synonymous and 5 non-synonymous) were found in the ORF2b gene, and the lowest number of substitutions (6-5 synonymous and one non-synonymous) were found in the ORF2a gene. None of the identified mutations affected any of the glycosylation or phosphorylation sites of the minor EAV protein. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF3 gene of EAV isolates showed that they grouped together within the cluster of European strains of EAV. Additionally, the ORF3 gene sequences of the isolates showed high (86.4% - 98.3%) similarity to the previously isolated Polish EAV strains.
Introduction: Traditionally, evolutionary analysis of equine influenza virus (EIV) is based on the HA gene. However, the specificity of the influenza virus enables the classification of viral strains into different phylogenetic groups, depending on the gene being analysed. The aim of the study was to analyse phylogenetic paths of EIV based on M gene with reference to the HA gene.
Material and Methods: M gene of Polish isolates has been sequenced and analysed along with all M sequences of EIV available in GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using BioEdit, ClustalW, and MEGA7 softwares.
Results: The clustering of the strains isolated not only from Asia but also from Europe into one common Asian-like group of EIV was observed. Twelve nucleotide substitutions in the M gene of strains from the Asian-like group were crucial for the evolutionary analysis. We also observed homology in the M gene of the Asian-like and H7N7 strains.
Conclusions: M gene specific for the Asian-like group is present in strains recently isolated in Europe and Asia, which were classified previously in the Florida 2 clade based on HA. Therefore, Asian-like group does not seem to be assigned to a specific geographical region. Traces of H7N7 strains in more conservative genes like M of some contemporary EIV strains may indicate the link between the old phylogenetic group and recent H3N8 strains. Analysis of conservative genes may be more useful in tracking the direction of virus evolution than in the genes where the high variability rate may blur the original relationships.
Shedding time of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV3) in calves vaccinated intranasally with modified live Rispoval RS-PI3 vaccine was determined. Blood and nasal swabs were collected on selected days before and after vaccination. Antibodies against BRSV and BPIV3 were tested by Respiratory ELISA Pentakit and the viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Twenty eight days after administration of the vaccine, a marked increase of specific antibody titres to BRSV and BPIV3 was detected in vaccinated calves. All animals were RT-PCR positive both for BRSV and BPIV3. Both viruses were excreted with nasal discharges within 8 d after vaccination but the course of shedding in individual calves was variable.
The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen) and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2%) were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5%) animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9%) seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.