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  • Author: Jerzy Różański x
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Abstract

Increasing competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, especially in the situation of growing economic globalization in the member countries of European Union and internationalization of activity of such enterprises, requires overcoming numerous obstacles the enterprises have to face. One of the most substantial of them is deficiency of means for the enterprises’ growth, particularly the means earmarked for innovative activity. This is mainly the consequence of lack of knowledge about how the enterprises could gain financial means from the alternative financing sources. This hinders establishing the optimal configuration of financing for an enterprise. Consequently, the purpose of the paper to improve enterprises’ access to external capital so as to be able to carry out the investments oriented towards strengthening of the enterprises and launching innovative products and services. The main result of research (sample of Polish SME) is preparing of advanced system of financing including alternative forms of financing of SME on each stages of their life cycle, connected with multicriteria forms of their assessment.

Abstract

The recent financial crisis that began in 2007, also known as the Global Financial Crisis, had a huge influence on the financial situations of enterprises and financial institutions around the world. The situation on world stock markets was also strongly affected by the crisis. As the behavior of investors may be affected by various factors which can impact their decisions on the stock exchanges, some of them may be unable to act in a rational manner and make the right decisions. The huge drop in share prices on world stock markets was visible in the early stages of the crisis. The share price does not always reflect the real situation of the company. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the influence of the recent financial crisis on the financial situation and performance of Polish listed companies. Financial ratios will be utilized to evaluate the real changes in the financial situation of Polish listed companies during the crisis. A large group of companies will be covered by the survey in order to assess the impact of macroeconomic factors on the financial situations of enterprises in different phases of the crisis. Market tests will not be applied because they may be affected by changes in share prices which in turn are often affected by irrational decision-making and fear.

Abstract

Introduction. Many studies have compared different backpack designs and their influence on the carrier; however, no data referring to school students aged 7-8 years are currently available. Therefore, the aim of the research was to assess the influence of backpack design on centre of pressure (COP) displacement and plantar force distribution in children during an upright stance. Material and methods. Nineteen school students (9 males and 10 females) volunteered for the study. Two Polish backpacks intended for school use were evaluated: backpack A, which had two main compartments, and backpack B, which had one main compartment. The backpack load was composed of books, binders, and regular school equipment. During the measurements, the subjects were asked to look ahead with the head straight and arms at the sides in a comfortable position and to stand barefoot on the F-Scan® sensors (Tekscan, F-Scan®) attached to the force platform (Kistler), carrying a load corresponding to 10% of their body mass. Results. The study found insignificant differences between the two backpack designs. Moreover, COP parameters increased significantly during an upright stance while carrying backpack B in comparison to the empty backpack condition. Additionally, we observed significantly higher values of plantar force distribution in the heel region for the condition without load and insignificantly higher ones for carrying backpack A. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest that the differences between the two backpack designs are too marginal to be detected through COP displacement. Disturbances in plantar force distribution suggest a lack of posture control and a lower stability of the standing position with a backpack, but these disturbances were significant only when the backpack with one main compartment was used.