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Open access

Jerzy Mrowicki, Małgorzata Mrowicka, Ireneusz Majsterek, Michał Mik, Adam Dziki and Łukasz Dziki


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders in the course dominated by chronic, recurrent gastrointestinal inflammation. It is believed that the activation of IBD occurs in patients with a genetic predisposition to their development. Chronic inflammation develops as a result of an excessive reaction of the immune system principally under the influence of environmental risk factors. Among them, it has been shown that the mechanism of oxidative stress is associated with the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease, responsible for the commencement and progress of these diseases.

The aim of the study was the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of individual antioxidant enzymes, and the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease that may be associated with increased levels of oxidative stress.

Material and methods. A total of 111 IBD patients, including 65 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 46 with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 125 healthy controls recruited from the Polish population, were genotyped for CAT -262C / T (rs1001179), SOD + 35A / C (rs2234694), GPx Pro 197 Leu polymorphisms. Genotyping of CAT, SOD, GPx gene polymorphism was performed by a RFLP-PCR.

Results. The performed analysis of genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes showed that polymorphic variant of the CAT -262 C / T may have protective effects in patients with ulcerative colitis in the range of genotype C / T; OR = 0.49 (0.25-0.99), p = 0.044. Trend protective, but statistically unrelated, it was also observed for genotype T / T and T allele of the same polymorphism and genotypes and alleles + 35A / C SOD1 in UC as well as polymorphic variants CAT -262 C / T, Pro197Leu of GPx1, + 35A / C SOD1 in CD. The results were compared with a control group of potentially healthy individuals without such diseases.

Conclusions. It has been shown that the polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes CAT gene -262 C / T may have protective effects in patients who are carriers of a genotype C / T at the UC. The potential protective effect without statistical relationships were also observed for other genotypes and alleles studied polymorphic variants of antioxidant enzymes in CD and CAT- 262C / T and + 35 A / C SOD1 in UC. Conducted our audit should be extended to more group of patients in order to assess whether or not to confirm the observed during analysis, the protective effect of CAT-262 C / T in ulcerative colitis and other trends observed for other polymorphic variants tested genes.

Open access

Karolina Przybyłowska, Jerzy Mrowicki, Andrzej Sygut, Piotr Narbutt, Łukasz Dziki, Adam Dziki and Ireneusz Majsterek

Contribution of the -173 G/C Polymorphism of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Gene to the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders characterized by inflammation of gastrointestinal tract, typically with a relapsing and remitting clinical course of unknown etiology. Presumably, IBD develops with response exogenous environmental factors only in persons with genetic predisposition. This predisposition was suggested to be associated with polymorphism and mutations in genes encoding proinflammatory immune system proteins. Enhanced production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and mice with experimental colitis. These results suggest that MIF plays a critical role in etiology of the colitis.

The aim of the study was determine whether the MIF -173 G/C gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Material and methods. A total of 99 IBD patients, including 58 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 41 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 436 healthy controls recruited from the Polish population, were genotyped for MIF polymorphisms. Genotyping of MIF gene polymorphism was performed by a RFLP-PCR.

Results. We found an increased risk of UC for the C allele of the MIF-173 G/C polymorphism. The distribution of the genotypes was not significantly different in the CD group compared with the controls.

Conclusions. We demonstrated that the C allele is associated with an increased risk for development of UC. This suggests that the G/C polymorphism in the MIF gene promoter may be a potential risk factor for UC in Polish population.

Open access

Jerzy Lisek, Lidia Sas-Paszt, Edyta Derkowska, Tomasz Mrowicki, Michał Przybył and Mateusz Frąc


In the years 2008–2015, field experiments were conducted on the vines of cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’ grafted on SO4 rootstock. The following treatments: 1. control (untreated), 2. NPK (mineral fertilization 70 kg N·ha−1; 40 kg P·ha−1; 120 kg K·ha−1), 3. mycorrhizal substrate (AMF – Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi), 4. NPK + AMF, 5. manure (before planting), 6. NPK + manure (before planting), 7. Bioilsa, 8. NPK + Bioilsa, 9. BF-Ecomix, 10. NPK + BF-Ecomix, 11. Ausma and 12. NPK + Ausma were applied to evaluate the usefulness of biostimulants and mineral and organic fertilizers in organic grapevine production in “cool climate” conditions of Poland. The tests did not show a definite positive effect of the biostimulants and organic fertilizers on growth, yielding and healthiness of the cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’. There were no substantial differences in total marketable yield in the years 2009 to 2015 between control and other treatments. Grapevines planted in soil rich in minerals grew and yielded well despite no mineral fertilization for a number of years. In 2014, when the air humidity was high during vegetation, intensive rotting of the berries of cultivar ‘Solaris’, caused by Botrytis cinerea, was observed on plants fertilized with NPK.

Open access

Jerzy Mrowicki, Karolina Przybyłowska, Łukasz Dziki, Andrzej Sygut, Maria Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Jan Chojnacki, Adam Dziki and Ireneusz Majsterek

Association of the-801G/A Polymorphism of CXCL12 Gene with the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Development in a Polish Population

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), mainly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are characterized by chronic and idiopathic inflammatory conditions of gastrointestinal tract that are immunologically mediated. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (CXCL12) has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathophysiology of IBD.

The aim of the study was to investigate whether the CXCL12 -G/A polymorphism (rs1801157) is associated to IBD in a sample of Polish population.

Material and methods. A total of 188 patients with IBD including 103 patients with CU and 72 patients with CD and 184 controls were enrolled in the study. Both groups came from the Polish population. The G/A polymorphism of CXCL12 was determined by PCR-RFLP analysis.

Results. There was no association between G/A polymorphism at position -801 promoter region of CXCL12 gene and increased risk of IBD. The study population was not found a difference in genotype distribution between the control group and with both CD and CU patients.

Conclusions. These results suggest that G/A polymorphism at position -801 promoter region of CXCL12 gene relates neither to the risk of the development of inflammatory bowel disease nor to the clinical subtypes of IBD in the Polish population. Whether this polymorphism truly contributes to disease susceptibility needs to be further addressed, and should stimulate additional studies in other populations.