The aim of the study was to assess the gut microbiota and selected haematological and biochemical blood parameters of weaned piglets following dietary supplementation with a probiotic and vitamin C. the piglets were divided into a control group (group C) and an experimental group (group E), with 30 piglets in each group. All animals received the same feed ad libitum. The animals in the control group (group C) received feed with no added probiotic and vitamin C. the piglets in the experimental group (group E) were given a supplement containing a probiotic (Bacillus cereus 1×109 CFU/kg) in the amount of 1.5 g/piglet/day and vitamin c in the amount of 300 mg/piglet/day. The supplement was administered for 28 days. The total numbers of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and of the genus Lactobacillus were determined in faeces. The erythrocyte count, haemoglobin level, haematocrit, leukocyte count, and percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes were determined in the blood. The biochemical analysis concerned the concentration of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL cholesterol. In group E a significant decrease (P<0.01) in the total number of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was observed in the faeces of the piglets, accompanied by an increase in the number of lactobacilli relative to group C. E. coli was found to predominate over other microorganisms. Salmonella choleraesuis bacteria were present in the faeces of both groups before administration of the supplement, but were not found after its use. The supplement with probiotic and vitamin C caused a significant increase in the erythrocyte, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels in the blood of the piglets and a significant decrease in the concentration of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.
The effect of feed mixture supplementation with MgCl2 on alimentary tract microflora, haematological markers, and selected parameters of reproductive performance of sows was investigated. The animals were divided into control group (K) and two experimental groups (E1 and E2). The sows from the experimental groups were receiving 1 g of MgCl2 6H20/100 kg b.w./day, which constituted 120 mg of pure magnesium, administered in a small portion of a feed mixture. The sows from group E1 were receiving MgCl2 every day for 30 d, whereas sows from group E2 for 60 d. A significant decrease in the count of E. coli, Providencia sp., and Proteus sp. was noted in faeces of the swine of both experimental groups. The study has also demonstrated a reduced number of lymphocytes and an increased number of granulocytes in blood of the sows receiving MgCl2. Feeding of pregnant sows with the addition of magnesium salt decreased the mortality rate of newborn piglets, increased the survival rate of piglets until 21 d of their life, and increased body weight values of litters originating from experimental sows, compared to the litters of control sows.
The studies involved gilts 6 weeks pre-partum allocated into the control and experimental groups. The experimental group received vitamin C at the dose of 2.5g/100 kg b.w./day. Faeces for analyses were collected for 3- and 6- week period of vitamin C dietary inclusion. The faecal material underwent quantitative and qualitative bacteriological evaluation. The count of Enterobacteriaceae was evaluated. The qualitative examination of these bacteria was made using the micro-plate method API 20E. Feed supplemented with vitamin C contributed to a statistically significant decline of the total bacterial count of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces. The qualitative bacterial analyses showed the presence of E. coli, Providecia sp., Proteus sp., and Salmonella sp. in the control and experimental groups. Enterobacter sp. was recovered only in the control group, while Lactobacillus sp. in the experimental group. The dietary administration of vitamin C significantly decreased the number of the studied bacterial species, except Salmonella rods. No statistically significant differences in the number of most blood morphotic elements following the 6- week supply of vitamin C were found; only the granulocyte count significantly increased, while lymphocyte numbers declined. Ascorbic acid inhibited the growth of pathogenic intestinal flora and reduced the pathogenic and relatively pathogenic bacteria count in the gastrointestinal tract and notably contributed to enhanced growth of beneficial bacteria.
The objective of the study was to assess microbial contamination of soil collected in a swine farm and manure from animals housed there depending on the season of the year and the sampling site. The study was conducted from October to September. The soil samples were taken immediately at the pig house wall (GI), and at the distance of 15 m (GII) and 45 m (GIII) from the house wall. Besides, manure samples were collected inside the pig housing facility: at the entrance to the pig house (KI) and at 1/4 (KII) and 1/2 length of the animal facility (KIII). The soil and manure samples underwent qualitative and quantitative bacteriological evaluation. The study was conducted according to the procedure laid out in the Polish Standards. There was also assessed air temperature and relative moisture, air motion and cooling as well as sample moisture in the sampling site. The greatest number of all studied bacteria was determined in soil collected 15 m from the piggery (GII) in December/January. The highest coli titre (0.0001) was also established in the samples (GII) at that time. The qualitative analysis of soil showed solely the presence of E. coli bacteria which were recovered in the GII soils taken from November to May. The largest bacterial load in swine manure was determined in the samples collected at 1/2 length of the pig house (KII) at the end of December and January. The growth of all the analysed microbes was favoured by sample moisture, while air relative moisture prompted development of psychrophilic and proteolytic bacteria. E. coli were isolated in manure samples throughout the entire research period, whereas Enterobacter spp. were detected in the KI and KII samples from June to August and in KII samples from June to September. The winter period was shown to affect significantly microbial contamination of swine farm environment as at that time the highest bacterial load was determined in soil and manure. This is most likely to be associated with the climatic and microclimatic conditions observed in those days.
The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland). Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.