The aim of the study was to assess the influence of lithological and pedogenic factors in the shaping of Cu, Ni and Zn distribution patterns in the profiles of Brunic Arenosols and Gleyic Podzols of the lower supra-flood terrace of the Słupia River, which is located outside the range of significant anthropogenic sources of pollution with these metals.
The contents of the investigated metals were analysed in aqua regia extracts of samples collected from three profiles of Brunic Arenosols, formed from river sands, and three profiles of Gleyic Podzols, formed from river sands transformed by eolian processes.
In general, river sands contained higher amounts of Ni and Zn (2.6 - 6.9 mg·kg-1 Ni; 10.3 - 16.2 mg·kg-1 Zn) compared to eolian sands (1.2 - 2.4 mg·kg-1 Ni; 3.3 - 17.3 mg·kg-1), while the content of copper tended to be higher in eolian sands (1.3 - 1.9 mg·kg-1) than river sands (0.1 - 1.5 mg·kg-1). The observed differences between the two types of sand are due to the loss of fine granulometric fractions and various minerals during eolian processes. Higher concentrations of the investigated metals in soil solum as compared to parent material are due to their uptake from deeper parts of the soil by roots and subsequent return to the soil surface as a component of litterfall. Therefore, the highest concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn were observed in ectohumus. In the mineral component of the soil, the highest concentrations were observed in organic matter-rich A and B horizons, which indicate close interactions between heavy metals, humic substances and iron oxides.
The vertical distribution of the investigated metals in the profiles of Gleyic Podzols indicates their leaching during podzolization. The observed contents of Cu, Ni and Zn, both in Brunic Arenosols and Gleyic Podzols, were lower than the geochemical background, which confirms that anthropogenic contamination of the studied area with these metals is marginal
The aim of the study was to compare the content of carbon and nitrogen fractions in fresh and dried samples of peat. The samples were extracted in 0.25 mol KCl·dm.-3, 0.25 mol H2SO4·dm.-3 and 2.5 mol H2SO4·dm.-3. Based on the extractions and analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following fractions of carbon and nitrogen were isolated: nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC) and nitrogen (NHN), hardly hydrolyzable carbon (HHC) and nitrogen (HHN), easy hydrolyzable carbon (EHC) and nitrogen (EHN), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and its ammonium (NH4.-N) and nitrate (NO3.-N) form. Large differences between fresh and dried samples were observed in the content of some analyzed fractions . especially NO3.-N, NH4.-N, DON and HHC. 220.127.116.11 times higher concentrations of NO3.-N were observed in dry samples in comparison with fresh. In dried samples were also observed higher concentrations of NH4.-N and DON. In general lower concentrations of EHN, NHN, HHC and higher of HHN and EHC were observed in dried samples in comparison to fresh. Higher content of mineral nitrogen, as well as DON and DOC in dried samples, is probably an effect of mineralization of carbon and nitrogen compounds during initial stage of drying. The obtained data suggest, that the content of NO3.-N, NH4.-N, DON and EHC analyzed in dried samples of peat is overestimated. Extractions of the fractions from organic samples should be done based on fresh samples, just after sampling
The concentrations of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn in the soil and litterfall, as well as influx of the elements to the soils with litterfall were studied in a mixed beech-pine-spruce stand in northern Poland during the years 2007–2009. Annual influx of litterfall to the soil amounted from 3.234 to 4.871 t/ha. Beech, pine and spruce
litterfall contributed in total litterfall in 50.8−70.1%, 11.4−11.9% and 1.6−24.0% respectively. The following average annual concentrations of heavy metals in total litterfall during the 3-year study period were noticed: 2469.3–3469.2 mg Mn/kg, 153.6–160.8 mg/kg Zn, 8.0–14.3 mg Ni/kg and 5.0–6.8 mg Cu/kg. In general, the concentrations of Mn and Cu were higher in beech litterfall in comparison to pine and spruce. The contents of Zn and Ni in beech, pine and spruce litterfall were comparable. Annual influx of metals to the soil with litterfall was: 10341.6–14422.4 g/ha Mn, 460.3–748.1 g/ha Zn, 37.4–66.6 g/ha Ni and 20.2–31.8 g/ha Cu. The fluxes were higher for Mn, Zn and Ni, and comparable for Cu in relation to those observed in other beech, pine, spruce and mixed stands in northern Europe.
Studies of plant litterfall mass, its dynamics, structure and chemical composition were conducted between 2007.2010 in a 120-year old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand located in Middle Pomerania. The annual mass of litterfall during the study period ranged from 2.793 to 5.398 t·ha.1 and its maximum was observed during the seed year. Leaves were the major component of plant litterfall and their contribution was 18.104.22.168% in the non-seed years and 47.2% during the seed year. Inflorescences, seeds, and seed coats were important components of litterfall during the seed year and accounted together up to 39.8% of the total litterfall mass. Particular fractions of litterfall significantly differed in the chemical composition. The highest concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were noticed in seeds and leaves collected in spring and the maximum content of calcium was observed in leaves collected in autumn. The weighted mean annual concentrations of nitrogen ranged within 0.81.1.13%, phosphate . 0.126.0.153%, potassium . 0.298.0.485% and calcium . 0.416.0.583%. The influx of elements with litterfall to the soil was: 22.214.171.124 kg·ha-1 of ash, 126.96.36.199 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen, 188.8.131.52 kg·ha-1 of phosphorus, 184.108.40.206 kg·ha-1 of potassium and 220.127.116.11 kg·ha-1 of calcium.
We conducted comparative studies on soil organic matter stocks and indices of the soil’s ecochemical state under Empetro nigri-Pinetum (En-P) and Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis (Vu-Bp) in the Słowiński National Park. The investigated plant communities are associated with Arenosols that developed from eolian sands and are exposed to high groundwater levels. The presence of fossil Histosol at a depth of 75 cm in the Vu-Bp stand, which lies below the current groundwater level, is the factor that sets both stands apart. The fossil soil strongly differs from Arenosol in terms of its chemical composition. A high abundance of nutrients in bioavailable forms in the soil is one of the reasons for natural renewal of downy birch in the stand, which presence in turn affects the turnover of elements and the properties of Arenosol. The results of our studies confirm the existence of strong feedback between the soil and plant communities. Soils under the mixed pine-birch Vu-Bp stand are characterized by smaller stocks of organic matter and total organic carbon (TOC) contained in the ectohumus as compared to the soils under the pure pine En-P stand. The opposite is found in the humic horizon. Additionally, in the Vu-Bp stand we observed greater accumulation of total nitrogen (TN) in ectohumus, which is reflected in lower TOC:TN ratios. The contents of TN and TOC:TN ratios in humic horizons were similar in both stands. The soils under En-P were more strongly acidified, especially in O-horizons. Mineral horizons in both stands were characterized by a very small sorptive capacity, which increased in ectohumus and fossil soil. Significant differences between the stands were observed in the ionic composition of sorptive complexes. The soils under Vu-Bp stand were more strongly saturated with basic cations, predominantly calcium. In soil solums of both stands, we observed a deficit of bioavailable potassium and magnesium, which was partially compensated by significant amounts of these components in ectohumus and fossil soil in the Vu-Bp stand. Despite a strongly acidic pH, molar Ca:Al ratios suggest that there are no phytotoxic effects due to free aluminium in ectohumus, while they are unlikely in mineral horizons. The risk of phytotoxic effects is reduced by the influx of calcium from groundwater.
The aim of the study was to compare the dynamics of Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn release during decomposition of leaves of Black alder (native material), Norway maple, Red oak and European beech (exogenous material) in the area of headwater riparian forests along the upper course of the Kamienna Creek (Northern Poland). Litter bag method was used in the experiment. Initial materials differed in terms of their chemical composition. Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn contents were low in general, and in fact, even a few times lower than limit values for decomposition rate. Different trends in the dynamics of the leaf metal content during decomposition were observed in particular tree species despite the fact, that every materials were exposed in the same site. Release dynamics was strongly affected by the content of metals in initial materials and in topsoil. Accumulation of Cu, Mn and Zn was observed during decomposition of poorest in the elements maple leaves, as well as Ni in alder leaves and Sr in the leaves of maple, alder and oak. In beech leaves we observed intensive leaching of Ni, whereas downward trends in the Cu concentration of beech leaves, as well as Mn and Zn in beech and oak leaves, were related to weight loss of the leaves. In some cases, the dynamics of metal release displayed a more complicated two- or three-stage character (release of Ni from maple and oak leaves; Cu from maple leaves; Sr from alder, maple and oak leaves; and Zn from alder and maple leaves).
The studies on quartz silt surface microstructures using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in Brunic Arenosol and Gleyic Ortsteinic Podzol, as major components of soil cover of the lower supra-flood terrace of the Słupia River, N Poland. Brunic Arenosols have developed from coarse- and medium-grained fluvioglacial sands, whereas Podzols from aeolian sands of mid-Holocene age, which in some places were covered with younger aeolian deposits. A group of at least 100 randomly selected grains from each soil horizon have been analyzed. The grains were classified into one of the following groups: fresh (type A), grains with the features of chemical weathering (type B), grains coated with scaly-grain incrustations (type C), grains coated with bulbous incrustations (type D), and cracked grains (type E). Parent materials of the investigated soils did not differ significantly in terms of contribution of grain types and type C predominated in both soils. Significant differences were noted in soil solums. Grains covered by scaly-grained incrustations predominated in Brunic Arenosol, which constituted 62–89%. In the profile of Gleyic Ortsteinic Podzol grains type B predominated in AE and E horizons (65–82%), whereas in the remaining horizons grains type C (54–77%).
In this paper, the results of an investigation of the effects of particle-size distribution, soil organic matter content and its parameters on soil sorption capacity are presented and their mutual relationships in sandy soils under long-term fertilisation experiments are determined. Soil samples were taken at the experimental station of Warsaw University of Life Sciences located in Skierniewice, (Poland) in spring 2017. The study included 94- and 41-year-old experiments with mineral fertilisation (no fertilisation, NPK, CaNPK) and 25-year-old experiment with mineral fertilisation + farmyard manure (FYM) in 4-year cycle: FYM, FYM+NPK and FYM+CaNPK. The results show that in the 94-year-old experiment in NPK and CaNPK treatments, hydrolytic acidity (Ha) decreased in comparison with the control by 30% and 88%, respectively, while in 25- and 41-year-old experiments only the application of NPK significantly increased Ha values. The sum of basic cations increased by a factor of 10 at the most in the CaNPK treatment in the 94-year-old experiment. The same effect was also observed in the 25-year-old experiment. On the one hand, the sorption complex gradually became fully saturated as a result of fertilisation in the 94-year-old experiment. On the other hand, in the 25- and 41-year-old experiments, base saturation was substantially reduced. A higher humus stability was an important agent for improving soil sorption capacity in 41- and 94-year old experiments.
The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.