Polish water resources depend on precipitations, which are variable in time and space. In dry years the water balance is negative in central parts of Poland but sudden thaws and downfalls may result in periodical water excess and dangerous floods almost in the entire country. The retention capacity of artificial reservoirs in Poland permits to store only 6% of the average annual runoff, which is commonly considered insufficient. Another method to increase retention is soil water control. About fifty percent of soils in Poland consist of light and very light sandy soils with low water capacity. Loams and organogenic soils cover approximately 25% and 8.5% area of the country, respectively. Almost half of agricultural lands (48%) have relatively good water conditions, but the rest requires soil water control measures. An increase of the soil water content could be achieved by changes of soil properties, water table control and soil water management. Modernization and reconstruction of drainage and irrigation systems, which were built mainly in the period 1960-1980, is needed.
The work presents the results of carbon dioxide measurements in soil air in a pot experiment during the vegetation of radish and lettuce, fertilized with fish composts along with additional mineral fertilization. In comparison to the C02 content in the control group, fertilization with the compost resulted in a O.10% average increase of this chemical compound in the group lacking mineral fertilization, and 0.12% in the group fertilized with minerals during radish vegetation. The increase in the C02 content of the after-crop (lettuce) was 0.17% and 0.11% (vol. %), respectively.
Zero-valent iron (ZVI) represent a promising agent for environmental remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of copper in doses of 0, 80, 150, 300, and 600 mg Cu·kg−1 of soil as well as ZVI, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.). The average accumulation of analyzing elements in Indian mustard grown in copper contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg > Na > P > Ca > K > N. Soil contamination at 600 mg Cu·kg−1 of soil led to the highest increase in P, Mg, N, and Ca content. The application of ZVI had a positive influence on the average phosphorus and potassium content of Indian mustard. Moreover, the application of ZVI and lignite had a positive influence on the average Mg and Ca content in the above-ground parts of Indian mustard. From the analyzed reactive materials, the application of lignite was shown to be the most effective resulting in the decrease in the average nitrogen and calcium content when compared to the control crop. Calcium content in plants from the control group, without the addition of zero-valent iron, and powered lignite (control), was positively correlated with increasing doses of copper.
The analysis of the current state of weather and climatic conditions and evaluation of their predicted changes for immediate and distant prospect in the drained areas of Ukrainian Polissia region was carried out in the article. The main trends in changes of meteorological characteristics and their possible effect on the conditions of functioning water management and ameliorative objects and complexes as well as on the natural and ameliorative state of drained areas were identified. The research uses a method of predictive-simulation modelling with used predictive assessment models of normalized distribution of the basic meteorological characteristics in the long-term and one-year vegetation context. According to the results of the research it was established that, for today a high variability in meteorological characteristics can lead to the significant deterioration of operation conditions of water management and ameliorative objects and units, as well as natural and ameliorative conditions of drained lands in Polissia region as a whole. Core measures regarding the adaptive potential enhancement and development in the region under the conditions of climate change were examined.