Objective: Hypercalcemia as the consequence of an excessive bone resorption is a common complication in patients with cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of hypercalcemia in patients with tumor-induced osteolysis starting therapy with bisphosphonates.
Methods: The questionnaire-based survey (data collected during three consecutive examinations within a 3-month period) was conducted among 1,450 patients treated with bisphosphonates for tumor-induced osteolysis.
Results: Hypercalcemia was found in 8.7% respondents starting the treatment with bisphosphonates. The most common cause of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia was prostate cancer, multiple myeloma and breast cancer. On the other hand, hypercalcemia was the most prevalent among patients with multiple myeloma, metastatic cancer of an unknown primary origin and bladder cancer. Metastases were reported in 342 patients, while pathological fractures in 37. The normalization of calcium level was obtained in 91.4% of the patients treated with bisphosphonates, mostly clodronate. During the bisphosphonate therapy, pathological fractures occurred in 4.6% of patients and the percentage of the patients reporting bone pain decreased from 79.9% to 30.9%.
Conclusion: Multiple myeloma, prostate and breast cancer are the most common causes of hypercalcemia of malignancy in patients with tumor-induced osteolysis starting therapy with bisphosphonates.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of incorrect assessment of mortality risk factors in a group of patients affected by acute coronary syndrome, due to the lack of hazard proportionality in the Cox regression model. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and no age limit were enrolled. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. The proportional hazard assumptions were verified using Schoenfeld residuals, χ2 test and rank correlation coefficient t between residuals and time. In the total group of 150 patients, 33 (22.0%) deaths from any cause were registered in the follow-up time period of 64 months. The non-survivors were significantly older and had increased prevalence of diabetes and erythrocyturia, longer history of coronary artery disease, higher concentrations of serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and lower concentrations of serum sodium. No significant differences in echocardiography parameters were observed between groups. The following factors were risk of death factors and fulfilled the proportional hazard assumption in the univariable model: smoking, occurrence of diabetes and anaemia, duration of coronary artery disease, and abnormal serum concentrations of uric acid, sodium, homocysteine, cystatin C and NT-proBNP, while in the multivariable model, the risk of death factors were: smoking and elevated concentrations of homocysteine and NT-proBNP. The study has demonstrated that violation of the proportional hazard assumption in the Cox regression model may lead to creating a false model that does not include only time-independent predictive factors.
Statistics is the science of collection, summarizing, presentation and interpretation of data. Moreover, it yields methods used in the verification of research hypotheses. The presence of a statistician in a research group remarkably improves both the quality of design and research and the optimization of financial resources. Moreover, the involvement of a statistician in a research team helps the physician to effectively utilize the time and energy spent on diagnosing, which is an important aspect in view of limited healthcare resources. Precise, properly designed and implemented Computerized Clinical Decision Support Systems certainly lead to the improvement of healthcare and the quality of medical services, which increases patient satisfaction and reduces financial burdens on healthcare systems.
Substances available in nature with potential therapeutic effects are the subject of research that raises tremendous hopes for new challenges in medicine. Fungi are the most common organisms in the ecosystem and the most interesting in this respect. This review discusses two species of edible fungi, used for centuries in Eastern natural medicine, with the best-documented effect – Hericium erinaceus (He) and Trametes versicolor (Tv). The results of in vivo and in vitro studies conducted on mice and human cell lines demonstrate immunomodulatory, potentially, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and neuroregenerative effects of substances isolated from these fungi. The substances contained in the extracts of He and Tv seem to have immunomodulatory effects that may support chemotherapy. The use of these extracts is justified stronger than the other supportive treat ments based on supplements.
Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogenic group of chronic inflammatory connective tissue diseases of unknown aetiology in children up to 16 years of age. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, clinical presentation and laboratory findings in children with JIA in Malopolska region.
Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis included all children with JIA (N=251) hospitalized in the two reference rheumatology centres covering Malopolska region (Poland), between July 2007 and December 2010.
Results: The annual incidence of JIA in Malopolska region was estimated at 9.5 per 100 000 children. Oligoarthritis (54.9%) was the most common category in all age groups with a tendency to decrease with age; from 71.4 % in children aged 1-6 years; 55.7% in aged 7-12 years to 39.3 % in aged 13-16 years. The frequency of polyarthritis and enthesitis-related arthritis was greater in adolescents (29.2 % and 22.5 %, respectively). HLA-B27 antigen and uveitis were most frequently found in children with enthesitis-related arthritis (58% and 18.5 %, respectively).
Conclusions: The study suggests the improvement of diagnostic capacity of JIA during the last decade in Poland. In accordance with the existing data diverse clinical presentation of JIA categories and laboratory characteristics were proven.