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  • Author: Jeong Hwa Kim x
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Open access

Jeong Hwa Kim, Jin Kyu Park and Jae Kwon Lee

Abstract

Nosemosis is one of the most common protozoan diseases of adult bees (Apis mellifera). Nosemosis is caused by two species of microsporidia; Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema ceranae is potentially more dangerous because it has the ability to infect multiple cell types, and it is now the predominant microsporidian species in A. mellifera. In this study, we identified two anti-nosemosis plants, Aster scaber and Artemisia dubia, which reduced the spore development of N. ceranae in spore-infected cells. The most important aspect of our results was that our treatment was effective at non-toxic concentrations. Anti-nosemosis activities of both plants were revealed in honey bee experiments. Specifically, a mixed extract of both A. scaber and A. dubia showed stronger activity than treatment with each single extract alone. Although the mechanisms of action of A. scaber and A. dubia against N. ceranae are still unclear, our results suggest new medicaments and therapeutic methods to control N. ceranae infection.

Open access

Jae Kwon Lee, Jeong Hwa Kim, Mina Jo, Balamurugan Rangachari and Jin Kyu Park

Abstract

In our previous study, we demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of Artemisia dubia (A. dubia) and Aster scaber (A. scaber) have anti-nosemosis activity. In our present study, we intend to establish the anti-nosemosis activity of aqueous, ethyl acetate (EA), and butanol (BuOH) extracts of A. dubia and A. scaber. In order to determine the optimal dose, we performed both in vitro and in vivo toxicity for all the extracts and also carried out anti-nosemosis experiments. Although all of the extracts (aqueous, EA, and BuOH) showed in vitro and in vivo anti-nosemosis activity in a dose-dependent manner, the aqueous extracts of A. dubia and A. scaber showed more potent anti-nosemosis activity than the EA and BuOH extracts. Moreover, an aqueous extract of A. dubia + A. scaber demonstrated stronger anti-nosemosis activity compared with the aqueous extracts of either A. dubia or A. scaber alone. Although the main ingredients in A. dubia and A. scaber remain unclear, our results suggest that the active components of A. dubia and A. scaber could dissolve in the aqueous fraction.