In the article, the author describes the presence of fossil records of the pigeons (Ord. Columbiformes, Fam. Columbidae), sandgrouse (Ord. Pteroclidiformes, Fam. Pteroclididae), cuckoos (Ord. Cuculiformes, Fam. Cuculidae), nightjars (Ord. Caprimulgiformes, Fam. Caprimulgidae), rollers (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Coraciidae), bee-eaters (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Meropidae), (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Upupidae), kingfishers (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Alcedinidae) and swifts (Ord. Apodiformes, Fam. Apodidae) in Europe, particularly the Carpathian Basin, during the Tertiary and Quaternary, as well as their osteological characteristics. These orders generally contain a small number of species in Europe, most of them consisting of thermophilic, migratory species. Their fossil and subfossil remains provide precious information about the climatic conditions of their respective areas of origin.
The text is supplemented by 15 figures and 2 tables.
Due to the number of specimen, their size and weaker flight capabilities they are one of the favorite preys of furred and feathered carnivores. Due to this factor quite a number of skeletal fragments remained and fossilized over millions of years, especially in caves. Their presence in Europe can be traced back to the Eocene, but the majority of finds come from the Neogene and the Quaternary. In the Carpathian Basin they are known since the beginning of the Neogene. The text is complemented with the bibliography concerning the fossilized material, one figure and six table.
The author summarizes the knowledge of fossil and subfossil bird life from the Carpathian Basin, of all geological ages, site by site. After a historical overview, he presents the Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary bird fauna, based on a holistic reference material consisting of 196 titles indicated in the bibliography, including papers in English (64), Hungarian (50), German (46), Romanian (26), Croatian (9) and Polish (1) languages. The text is supplemented with maps of fossiliferous sites from different ages and a list from 341 paleontological and archaeological sites on species of the Carpathian Basin, respectively. The number of taxa reaches 845, including 189 extinct taxa (two orders, four families, nine genera - five ichnotaxa of which (154 species, five ichnotaxa and 10 subspecies) were described from the Carpathian Basin, primarily. Most significant records include the Mesozoic taxa (Eurolimnornis, Palaeocursornis, Elopteryx), the new Neogene songbirds species and the presence of predecessors of recent European grouses, Bustards and Corvidae species from the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene in the Carpathian Basin.
The author provides an osteological guide to songbirds, based on 11 skeletal parts of 51 genera, at the genus level for ornithologists studying owl pellets, paleontologists and archaezoologists. The mandible, the coracoid bone, the scapula, the humerus, the ulna, the carpometacarp, the first phalanx bone of the second finger, the femur, the tibiotars, the tarsometatars and the claw bone are presented.
The morphological characteristics and method of measurement of the examined skeletal parts and the photographs of the appropriate bones are illustrated on 52 plates and 17 figures. The measurement data are also provided in 11 size tables. For every discussed bone, 3-6 characteristics are chosen, and their codes consist of 3-6 letters. In case of overlaps, dimensions are the determining factors, and for the humerus and the ulna, the ensemble of the two bone end pairs can be used.
This paper presents the European fossil, subfossil and recent representatives of the Picidae family. Following the list of fossil and subfossil remains, the author analyzes and presents images of the osteological characteristics of the order’s 10 recent European species.
Skeletal parts that are usually present both in the fossil and subfossil material were examined (mandibula, coracoideum, scapula, humerus, ulna, metacarpus, the first phalanx of the second finger of the wing, femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus and distal phalanx). The text is complemented with the bibliography concerning the fossilized material, tables and figures and a size chart.
This study aims to summarize the knowledge about the evolution and fossil remains of avian fauna near waterbodies, since ornithologists, who rarely come across or research the paleontology of birds, do not possess significantly detailed knowledge about the evolution and evidence of the current avian fauna.
Owls represent typical nocturnal avian predators. They are known since the beginning of the Tertiary. Thirteen species live in Europe, but the number of extinct fossil species is only slightly above twice that number. The present genera appeared in the Neogene period. They also have a major significance regarding palaeoecology, since most of the fossilized remains of small-medium sized vertebrates are available from owl pellets. The author wishes to describe the occurrence and evolution of owls in Europe from the Cretaceous to current times, as well as to provide an osteological guide of recent species. The text is supplemented by 16 plates, 4 size charts, and extensive bibliography.
The author describes the presence of the oldest extinct diurnal birds of prey species in the world and fossilized representatives of different families, as well as the presence of recent species in the Carpathian Basin among fossilized remains. In case of ospreys, one of the oldest known materials is classified as a new extinct species named Pandion pannonicus. The text is supplemented by a plate and a size chart.
Corvids are the largest songbirds in Europe. They are known in the avian fauna of Europe from the Miocene, the beginning of the Neogene, and are currently represented by 11 species. Due to their size, they occur more frequently among fossilized material than other types of songbirds, and thus have been examined to the largest extent. In the current article, we present their known evolution and their fossilized taxa in Europe and examine the osteology of extant species.