R&D expenditures (R&D) are an important precondition for the economic growth and development, as well as for the improvement of export performances and competitiveness of national economies. Knowledge has been increasingly identified as the primary factor of economic growth in the modern business environment. In order to outline appropriate policy on R&D expenditures, it is necessary to analyse indicators of the dynamics and quality of R&D expenditures as well as indicators regarding growth and development of national economies. In this paper, we present R&D expenditures of old and new EU Member States as well as Serbia. Based on the correlation intensity of indicators of R&D expenditures and economic growth and export, it’s been analysed if R&D intensity has an impact on competitiveness and growth in mentioned countries since 2000. Although Serbia has implemented significant economic reforms since 2000 and there has been an overall awareness of the need on higher R&D, the R&D sector still lags behind developed countries of the EU. Therefore, this paper directs attention to the importance of identifying and implementing a national policy on R&D expenditures, with special focus on necessity for improved R&D funding of the business sector and growth of R&D funding from abroad.
Violeta Ćulafić-Vojinović, Đorđe Ćulafić, Svetlana Ignjatović, Milan Petakov, Marina Đurović Nikolić, Jelena Vasić, Duško Mirković, Dragana Mijač and Miloš Štulić
Background Metabolic bone disease in patients with chronic liver disease is called hepatic osteodystrophy and is primarily a sequel to osteopenia/osteoporosis, and rarely secondary to osteomalacia. The aim of this work was to define the influence of vitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the pathogenesis of hepatic osteodystrophy, as well as the predictive significance of biochemical bone markers.
MethodsThis prospective study included 58 male patients with alcoholic (49) and viral (9) cirrhosis. The concentrations of serum vitamin D3, PTH, osteocalcin and b-carboxy-ter - minal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (b-CTX) were determined. Bone density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the L1-L4 spinal segment and the femoral neck.
Results Lower bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 41 patients (70.7%). There was no significant correlation between PTH and vitamin D3 values and T score in the femoral neck (p=0.51; p=0.063) and lumbar spine (p=0.49; 0.064). Also, no significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin values in lumbar spine BMD (p=0.944) and femoral neck (p=0.161), or with b-CTX values and BMD in the lumbar spine (p=0.347) and femoral neck (p=0.73). Statistically significant difference was confirmed between the stage A osteocalcin (p=0.000) and b- CTX (p=0.008) values in relation to advanced stages B and C.
Dusan Lj. Tomovic, Andriana M. Bukonjic, Aleksandar Kocovic, Milos V. Nikolic, Marina Z. Mijajlovic, Verica V. Jevtic, Zoran R. Ratkovic, Aleksandar N. Arsenijevic, Jelena Z. Milovanovic, Bojana Stojanovic, Srecko R. Trifunovic and Gordana P. Radic
New complexes of copper(II) with S-alkenyl derivatives of thiosalicylic acid (alkenyl = propenyl-(L1), isobutenyl-(L2)) have been synthesized and characterized by microanalysis, infrared spectra, magnetic measurements, and by NMR spectra. The cytotoxic activity of two newly synthesized precursor S-alkenyl derivatives of thiosalicylic acid were tested using an MTT colorimetric technique on HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells. The cytotoxic effect of the copper(II)- complexes were higher compared to the cytotoxicity of the corresponding ligand (for concentrations from 31.25 to 250 μM). Copper(II)-complexes showed a slightly lower cytotoxicity compared to cisplatin. Complexes of copper(II) with S-alkenyl derivatives of thiosalicylic acid (at concentrations from 250 to 1000 μM) had a cytotoxic effect on HCT-116 cells compared to cisplatin.