The purpose of this paper is to present methodologies for carrying out benchmarking of the PR function in Serbian companies and to test the practical application of the research results and proposed methods in real conditions. The paper begins with research on key PR function parameters in Serbian companies. Seventy PR managers were polled for this purpose. The data obtained were processed by applying factor analysis, after which five factors (parameters) which describe the attitudes of PR managers in Serbian companies were defined. Next a study was conducted of the defined parameters, or their situation, in the seven selected Serbian companies. Twenty-one managers were polled in the process providing the data for a mathematical function for comparison of the analyzed companies. The function is based on elements of quantitative and multi-criteria analysis. Among the main output data are: ranking of the analyzed benchmarking partners (aggregate and according to individual parameters), defining similarities between the partners, selection of the competent benchmarking partner, multicriteria selection of the best action and positioning the parameters of the selected action in the field of a particular portfolio matrix. It has been shown by concrete example that the proposed procedures have both theoretical and practical value. The presented procedures are not only limited to the PR process, but can also be applied to benchmarking other business processes.
Acne necrotica is a rare disease, characterized by repeated cropping of inflammatory papules and papulo-pustules, which rapidly necrotize and leave varying degrees of varioliform scars that may lead to cicatricial alopecia when terminal hair-bearing sites are involved. In early lesions, pathology shows necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis. We report a 63-year-old male patient with chronic, relapsing, umbilicated and centrally necrotic erythematous papules and papulo-pustules involving the frontal hairline area, face, and neck. Histopathology showed epidermal spongiosis and lymphocytic exocytosis, extensive necrosis and destruction of the follicular epithelium, a dense diffuse lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and necrosis of the perifolicular dermis. The diagnosis of acne necrotica was made based on the correlation of clinical and histopathological findings. A complete clinical remission was achieved with topical erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide.
Low Complex Forward Adaptive Loss Compression Algorithm and Its Application in Speech Coding
This paper proposes a low complex forward adaptive loss compression algorithm that works on the frame by frame basis. Particularly, the algorithm we propose performs frame by frame analysis of the input speech signal, estimates and quantizes the gain within the frames in order to enable the quantization by the forward adaptive piecewise linear optimal compandor. In comparison to the solution designed according to the G.711 standard, our algorithm provides not only higher level of the average signal to quantization noise ratio, but also performs a reduction of the PCM bit rate for about 1 bits/sample. Moreover, the algorithm we propose completely satisfies the G.712 standard, since it provides overreaching the curve defined by the G.712 standard in the whole of variance range. Accordingly, we can reasonably believe that our algorithm will find its practical implementation in the high quality coding of signals, represented with less than 8 bits/sample, which as well as speech signals follow Laplacian distribution and have the time varying variances.
The degree of patient cooperation plays a key role in the success of antihypertensive drug therapy. Non-adherence is the major health and economic problem in the treatment of arterial hypertension (HTA). The aim of the study was to evaluate the degree of adherence in hypertensive patients and to study risk factors affecting adherence and the effects of non-adherence on blood pressure (BP). We performed a cross-sectional study, which involved 170 outpatients with HTA, treated in primary healthcare. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the degree of adherence, measured using a validated survey form. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson's Chi-square and t-test. Good adherence was observed in 126 (74.12%) outpatients. Elderly patients with longer duration of HTA and larger number of drugs in the therapy showed a lower degree of adherence, with more side-effects (p<0.01). Patients younger than 65 years were found to be more likely to adhere to their medication regimen, compared to elderly patients (χ2=21.3; p<0.01; OR=6.0 95%, CI 2.76-13.04). Uncontrolled BP occurred in the significantly higher percentage in non-adherent patients (59.1%) compared to the adherent group (21.4%) (χ2=19.84; p<0.01; OR=5.30 95%, CI 2.39-11.85). The most common reason for poor adherence was non-compliance with dosage regimen (27.27%).
The medication adherence rate was found to be low among elderly patients. A poor adherence was found to negatively affect BP control. Determining the factors for non-adherence and developing multidisciplinary intervention programs to address the identified factors are necessary to improve adherence to medication and BP control.
Background/Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment options, survival rate of traumatized primary teeth and evaluate the factors influencing the outcome. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of all dental trauma cases treated over a 14 years period at the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Dental Clinic of Vojvodina, Novi Sad. Criteria for inclusion in this study were: dental trauma to primary teeth and age in the moment of injury up to seven years. Dental trauma records were analyzed in order to obtain the following: gender and age of the child at the time of trauma, type of trauma, as well as the type and timing of treatment received. After data analysis a survival rate of traumatized primary teeth was evaluated. Results: The study was designed as retrospective and it included 225 children, with 346 traumatized primary teeth. The occurrence of trauma was higher in male patients (60,4%) and in children up to 4 years of age. Luxations were more frequent (72.8%) compared to isolated teeth fractures (20.8%), while the two types of injury combined were rare (6,3%). One year following dental trauma 231 teeth (0.67%) developed complications. Falls were the main cause of trauma (68.9%) and the presence of more than one traumatized tooth was frequent. A percentage of 48.8 children received dental care during first 24 h after the injury. Conclusions: Survival of injured primary teeth is relatively low, regardless of trauma type, time interval between injury and treatment and the type of provided treatment.
Background: Genetic studies of salivary gland neoplasms were mainly focused on chromosomal changes, and some specific patterns of chromosome translocations have been described. However, molecular alterations, in particular the role of HER-2/H-ras/c-myc signalling cascade in pleomor- phic adenoma pathogenesis (PA), are less well characterized. In addition, data on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as potential susceptibility factors for PA development are also quite scarce.
Methods: Mutational analyses were performed by means of real-time PCR (HER-2 and c-myc amplification analysis), PCR-SSCP and sequencing (H-ras point mutation detec- tion). Polymorphisms analysis was performed by PCR-RFLP (survivin and MMP-9 genes).
Results: Amplification of HER-2 and c-myc has been found in 13% and 9% of PA cases respectively. Point mutations in H-ras codons 12/13 have been detected in 17% of PAs. No correlation could be established between these alterations and clinical characteristics of PAs, whereas they might play a role in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumours. As for survivin -31 G/C polymorphism, C allele carriers had a 4-fold decrease of the risk of developing PA (p=0.05). Carriers of the variant allele T of the -1562C/T SNP in MMP-9 gene had a 4-fold increase of the risk of developing PA (p<0.001).
Conclusions: A longer follow-up of PA patients harbouring mutations could uncover a prognostic role of HER-2 and c- myc amplification as predictors of adenoma transformation into carcinoma. Both survivin and MMP-9 promoter poly- morphisms represent susceptibility factors for the develop- ment of PAs in the Serbian population.
The aim of the paper was to investigate the tissue response to the implantation of "Endomethasone" (Septodont) in artificially prepared defect in the rat mandible.
Sixteen Wistar male rats were used for the experiment. After anesthesia, a defect between the midline and the mental foramen of the left mandible was made (diameter 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm depth) using sterile steel burs. In the defect of the experimental group (12 animals) “Endomethasone“ was implanted while the defect in the control group (4 animals) was left to heal spontaneously. One half of animals of both groups was sacrificed after fifteen days, and the second half after sixty days. The samples consisted of the defect and the surrounding bone. After routine decalcination and processing, the samples were embedded in paraffin, and microscopic preparations were made, on the basis of which a microscopic analysis was performed.
Fifteen-day-old specimens showed the early signs of bone resorption, as well as granulated connective tissue, hyperemic blood vessels, fibrin exudate to a lesser extent, with the difference that inflammatory infiltrates were less present in the experimental group. Sixty-day-old specimens demonstrated the degree of bone healing; tissue filling with newly formed bone was significantly more advanced in the control group. Experimental group showed a sign of delay with significant presence of callus tissue that more in the form of focus showed a deposition of the young bone tissue.
Endomethasone masks the inflammatory reaction which follows operational procedures. In the long run, according to the results of the present research, Endomethasone can interfere with bone healing by causing delayed inflammatory reaction
Host response to antigen stimulation in chronic inflammatory periapical lesions is mainly controlled by the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of TGF-β1 in the tissue homogenates of periapical lesions and to analyse its level in relation to the symptomatology of the patients and size of the lesions. Ninety three samples of chronic periapical lesions were obtained after extraction of teeth. Samples were divided according to the clinical symptoms as symptomatic and asymptomatic, and according to the size as large and small. The concentration of TGF-β1 was analyzed using ELISA. The results showed increased production of TGF-β1 in symptomatic lesions compared to asymptomatic, but the difference was not statistically significant. Statistically significant difference in TGF-β1 concentrations was observed in large lesions compared to small (p<0,001). It seems that TGF-β1 have a modulating effect on bone tissue resorption activity under the influence of proinflammatory cytokines and can be molecular prognostic marker of periapical lesion healing.
The sandwich structures have multifold advantages with respect to other types of structures. Besides the architectural possibilities due to their appearance, those structures can carry the same or even higher loads than some other similar structures. Optimization of the sandwich columns with the truss core, subjected to the compressive axial load, is presented in this paper. The two types of optimization were performed: the three-parameter and the four-parameter optimization - the so called full optimization. The optimization of the column geometry (face thickness, core member height and core member diameter and core height) was performed, from the aspect of the minimal weight of the structure in terms of the load index. It was performed for four types of restrictions imposed by the corresponding column failure modes: column buckling, truss macro-buckling, local buckling of the face and face wrinkling. The tree-parameter optimization resulted in somewhat larger weight of the column than the full, four-parameter optimization.
The analysis of influence of factors that depend on construction characteristics of the vibrosieves with circular vibrations on screening efficiency is presented in this paper. The dependence of the screening efficiency on the aperture size, length and inclination of the screen, as well as on vibration amplitude, is considered. Based on obtained results, one can see that the screening efficiency increases with vibration amplitude and the screen length increase. Further, increases of the screen inclination and aperture size are causing an initial increase of the screening efficiency, which is later decreasing.