R&D expenditures (R&D) are an important precondition for the economic growth and development, as well as for the improvement of export performances and competitiveness of national economies. Knowledge has been increasingly identified as the primary factor of economic growth in the modern business environment. In order to outline appropriate policy on R&D expenditures, it is necessary to analyse indicators of the dynamics and quality of R&D expenditures as well as indicators regarding growth and development of national economies. In this paper, we present R&D expenditures of old and new EU Member States as well as Serbia. Based on the correlation intensity of indicators of R&D expenditures and economic growth and export, it’s been analysed if R&D intensity has an impact on competitiveness and growth in mentioned countries since 2000. Although Serbia has implemented significant economic reforms since 2000 and there has been an overall awareness of the need on higher R&D, the R&D sector still lags behind developed countries of the EU. Therefore, this paper directs attention to the importance of identifying and implementing a national policy on R&D expenditures, with special focus on necessity for improved R&D funding of the business sector and growth of R&D funding from abroad.
Pain control, during and after root canal treatment is one of the important issues in endodontic practice. Occurrence of pain after intervention often presents considerable distress to both patient and dentist. In many studies influence of different endodontic treatment factors on incidence of postoperative pain has been investigated. However, different and inconsistent results between studies and growth in number of published papers each year made professional updating and clinical-decision making challenging. Systematic reviews synthesized and combined data from relevant studies to find the answer to a research question providing the highest level of scientific evidence. Thus, their use may facilitate decision making in clinical practice. The aim of this article was to present results from systematic reviews about the influence of endodontic treatment on postoperative pain.
Low labour costs as one of the key sources of export stimulation, the competitive advantage of domestic agricultural production and bilateral agreements with partner countries - all promote export as a potentially significant factor of encouragement of economic development of the Republic of Serbia.Taking into account this fact, on the one hand, and balance of payments problems that Serbia has been facing over the years, on the other hand, the subject of this paper is an analysis of trends in the Republic of Serbia export and explanation of variations in the export trends during the period from 2004 to 2014. The aim of the paper is to explore export trends forecast from January to December 2015.The analysis uses Holt-Winters and ARIMA methods for analyszing time series.The paper provides insight into the export trend forecasts for the period of 12 months, and thus confirms the possibility of practical usage of the time series analysis methods in forecasting macroeconomic variables such as export. The used methods identify increase of export during the summer and its decrease after October 2015. The paper establishes the existence of a high degree of congruence between forecasts obtained by using two methods, which confirm a high quality of the elaborated methods in the analysis of exports.
Employees’ satisfaction is one of the frequently analyzed subgroups of human attitudes connected to organizational environment. The authors’ aim is to study different categories of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of teachers in elementary schools in the Republic of Serbia, as a specific category of employees. The results of the research carried out have shown that teachers are dissatisfied with salaries, awards and benefits. The next category concerning the intensity of dissatisfaction is teachers’ dissatisfaction with operational procedures. On the other hand, teachers are mostly satisfied with the work they are doing, with their superiors, their colleagues and system of communicating within schools.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a species with interspecies variability, especially in qualitative traits. From horticultural point of view it is important to choose genotypes with desired characteristics. Knowing of genotypes characteristics is essential to choose the correct genotypes that can be used in gardens and like cut flowers. Present research was carried out at Institute of Field and Crops at Rimski Šančevi in Novi Sad, Serbia. Experiment included four genotypes of ornamental sunflower. Significant variation for morphological traits were observed. Qualitative characteristics such as flower color, also showed great variability. Base on the results all genotypes can be recommended as garden plants and cut flowers.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze relations between seed quality characteristics and the influence of contaminated urban areas on seed quality of sycamore maple trees in different locations across Novi Sad (Serbia). This research analyzed seed germination of 29 adult trees of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and its red leaf variety (Acer pseudoplatanus ‘atropurpureum’ Späth.). Our results indicate a medium strong positive correlation between seed weight and viable seed. Sycamore maple trees from the same urban typology do not have significant influence on seed quality characteristics, while different urban typology has such influence. These results explain the negative influence of urban areas on seed quality characteristics. For selection of high value trees in urbanized and contaminated areas, seed quality can be the indicator of adaptability to stress related conditions.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases which continue to increase in number and significance. It presents the third most prevalent condition among medically compromised patients referring for dental treatment. Diabetes mellitus has been defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Hyperglycemia leads to widespread multisystem damage which has an effect on oral tissue. The present article summarizes current knowledge regarding the association between diabetes mellitus and oral and dental health.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of commercial plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely Inict-1 and Incit-5, on the rooting of African violet leaf cuttings (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.). The production of African violets has grown considerably in recent years, thus it is important to study the most rapid and cost-effective means of mass production. The propagated plant material of the cultivar ‘Nagano’ was treated with Incit-1 and Incit-5. The following parameters were observed: the occurrence of the first root, the number of formed secondary roots and root lengths, the occurrence of the first leaf, and the occurrence of the first flower. The results obtained showed that the use of commercial rooting hormones, namely Incit-1 and Incit-5, exerted positive effects on the duration of rooting, the number of secondary roots formed, and the root lengths of African violets. During the research, it was observed that the rooting durations of all the plants treated with Incit-1 and Incit-5 were 5 days shorter. The results indicate that the plants treated with PGRs necessitate less time to root, less time to produce new leaves, and, consequently, less time to produce flowers.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the floristic composition, abundance, biological spectrum and ecological effects of Futoški Park trees and shrubs on the basis of bioindicators. The field research was conducted in Futoški Park, which is one of the oldest and largest parks in the City of Novi Sad, covering an area of 81,306 m2. Upon determining the floristic composition of Futoški Park and the protection zone around the Park hotel, a total of 121 genotypes were recorded, out of which 34 species and lower taxa belong to the Gymnosperm phylum (Pinophyta) and 87 species and lower taxa belong to the Angiosperm phylum (Magnoliophyta). A total of 5,228 representatives of dendroflora were found. The biological range of trees and shrubs in the study area mostly includes deciduous nanophanerophytes (34.98%) and evergreen nanophanerophytes (33.72%), whereas the remainder includes evergreen phanerophytes (16.35%) and the least prevalent deciduous phanerophytes (14.94%). The analysis of ecological indices shows that the greatest number of species meet the environmental requirements, and are successfully acclimated to the climatic and soil conditions. On the basis of the overall vitality and ornamental features of the dendroflora analyzed, it can be argued that Futoški Park is a unique ecological and environmental entity in the urban structure of the city.
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of oestradiol (E2, 4 mg kg-1 b.w. i.p.) against cadmium-induced (Cd, 2 mg kg-1 b.w. i.p.) blood changes in rats. Cadmium induced a significant decline in haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and thrombocyte count, whereas total leukocytes and granulocytes increased. A significant increase was also observed in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, AST, and ALT activities, whereas total protein and albumin levels dropped significantly. Administration of E2 in combination with Cd alleviated most of these adverse effects. In terms of oxidative stress, Cd significantly increased oxygen-free radicals (O2 •- and H2O2) in neutrophils and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, whereas E2 treatment reversed these changes to control values. Acute Cd poisoning significantly lowered antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity and the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH and vitamin E), while increasing in GSSG. Treatments with E2 reversed Cd-induced effects on the antioxidant defences and significantly lowered Cd-induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes. This study suggests that exogenous E2 effectively restores redox balance in rat erythrocytes and counters adverse haematological and biochemical effects of Cd poisoning. It also improves the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes, acting in synergy with endogenous antioxidants.