The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the pathological personality traits in predicting suicidal ideation, especially in combination with other risk factors, such as the level of depression, prior attempts of suicide, low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-social support interaction, both in general and in psychiatric inpatient samples. Data were analysed within two samples: non-clinical general sample (n = 461) and psychiatric inpatient sample (n = 131). Latvian Clinical Personality Inventory (LCPI) was used as the instrument for data collection. LCPI is a comprehensive multi-scale multi-item inventory, which consists of nine clinical scales (including Depression Symptom Scale), 33 pathological personality scales, five functioning scales, and five additional scales, including a Suicidal Ideation Scale, Low Self-esteem Scale and Lack of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that several facet-level pathological personality traits (depressivity, self-harm, dissociation proneness, submissiveness, and suspiciousness) added significant incremental variance to the prediction of suicidal ideation above and beyond the well-known main risk factors of suicidal ideation, such as depression and prior suicide attempt. This effect remained stable even after taking into account additional interpersonal risk factors, such as low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-perceived social support interaction. The incremental effect of personality traits was medium in the psychiatric inpatient sample and small in the general sample. Findings of the study may assist in early screening for persons with suicide risk and for developing prevention programmes in different settings.
Maksims Zolovs, Madara Priekule, Olesia Gasperovich, Jelena Kolesnikova, Sergejs Osipovs and Voldemārs Spuņģis
Seasonal changes of abiotic factors and their influence on parasite occurrence have repeatedly been studied. Most of the studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of water physicochemical parameters on changes in the intensity of infection, prevalence and component community of a number of parasite species. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the link between water quality parameters and spatial niche size of ectoparasites. The distribution of ectoparasite species on perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) was studied to establish whether seasonal changes of water quality parameters are associated with ectoparasite spatial niche size. The concentration of phosphates (PO43−), nitrates (NO−3), sulphates (SO42−) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water of Lake Sila (Latvia) was measured every month throughout the year and recorded all ectoparasites on perch. Zero-inflated mixed models were used to evaluate which of the water parameters influence the spatial niche size of ectoparasites. Our findings showed that spatial niche size of some ectoparasite species is affected by a set of water quality parameters and that this effect is negative. The spatial niche size of Anodonta cygnea was negatively associated with phosphate, nitrate, sulphate and dissolved oxygen concentration. The spatial niche size of Ancyrocephalus percae was negatively associated with sulphate, and the spatial niche size of Ergasilus sieboldi was negatively associated with nitrate concentration.