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Javier Esparcia and J. Javier Serrano

Abstract

Gender issues are of growing importance in the European and Spanish rural areas. The literature reflects that women have traditionally been linked to marginal positions in economic life, social activities and even political representation at the local level. Local development programs that have been implemented in Europe’s rural areas have had among its objectives the improvement of the articulation of local communities. To reach them, it has been fostered, among others, a gender perspective, promoting both productive activities led by women and their participation as stakeholders in the management and decision-making structures of such programmes. In this paper, we addressed this latter issue. The study focuses on a sample of 30 relevant social actors linked to the implementation of a rural development programme in the county of Rincón de Ademuz (Valencia, Spain) from the mid-1990s to recent date. Through Social Network Analysis, gender differences and women’s roles within the social network are studied in two differentiated periods. This analysis reveals that despite women representing a minority among the relevant stakeholders, their level of participation, prestige, position in the network, and frequency of relationships, among other indicators, are comparable with respect to those sustained by men. Therefore, it cannot be said, as reflected in some of the literature, that women tend to occupy marginal positions in the structure of social relations of local development programs.

Open access

Fatemeh Abbasi, Javier Esparcia and Heshmat A. Saadi

Abstract

European agriculture should meet new increasing internal and contextual challenges. For example, the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003 introduced the cross-compliance, among other novelties, as compulsory for farmers. To better meet this and other requirements, Member States had to set up the so-called Farm Advisory System, operational across the European Union in 2007. From a sample of actors involved in the provision of farm advisory services in the region of Valencia (Spain), the present study aimed to identify the most appropriate strategies to implement such services. SWOT method has been applied to examine the internal and external environment. Based on this diagnosis, dominance of strengths and opportunities resulted in a set of four prioritised main ‘aggressive’ strategies (using SPACE and QSPM methods), which in turn may help public decision makers and advisers in a more effective implementation of advisory services.