The research aims to examine the perceptions of relative novice users of self-service checkouts (SSCOs) and if these perceptions change before, during and following use. Employing a diary approach with 31 respondents relatively unfamiliar with SSCOs, the research will document their experiences with this technology across stationary, hardware and grocery stores in two Scottish cities (Glasgow and Dundee). Findings suggest that the majority of respondents were motivated to use the technology because of time saving and convenience. However, the actual experience of using SSCOs was not always considered quicker when compared to staffed checkouts because of technical issues, lack of staff assistance and the impersonal, sometimes stressful and controlled nature of the cramped SSCO environment. Following post-use reflections, the majority of respondents’ opinions did not change from their initial perceptions and indicated that they would prefer not to use the technology in the future. Based on the findings, this study makes some practical suggestions centring on the design and usability of SSCOs, which may go some way to reducing customer dissatisfaction and frustration with the technology, especially from the perspective of new users of the technology.
Background and Purpose: This study investigates the impact of environmental reporting on speed of adjustment and adjustment costs which is evaluated based on the ability of firms to adjust to target leverage level for non-financial firms listed in the Malaysian Stock Exchange (Bursa Malaysia).
Design/Methodology/ Approach: The study selects Malaysian firms based on the contracting and political cost of the economy which is seen as a relationship-based economy. This in turn influences a firm’s ability to obtain external financing and thus has an important impact on capital structure decisions. In addition, the method employed allows for a direct measure on adjustment cost for firms. The current study utilises a dynamic regime switching model based on the DPF estimator to estimate rate of adjustment to optimal target levels based on the distinction of environmental reporting of public listed firms. The approach allows statistical inferences to control for potential serial correlation, endogeneity and heterogeneity concerns which accounts for firm specific characteristics.
Results: The empirical findings suggest voluntary disclosure on environmental reporting increases a firm’s ability to access external financing at a cheaper cost as evidenced by a more rapid rate of adjustment. The findings are consistent across differing endogenous and exogenous factors indicating that these firms tend to face lower adjustment costs.
Conclusion: The current study provides a direct measure on the ability of firms to adjust to target levels via security issues and repurchases in the capital markets. This in turn is a reflection of perceived riskiness and value from the investors’ point of view in an emerging market. Prior studies have focused on environmental reporting and equity risk premiums and have not evaluated the direct impact on firm value given that the trade-off theory of capital structure predicts that firm value is maximised at target i.e. optimal levels of leverage. This study addresses the current gap in the literature by evaluating the impact on firms’ value, based on the adjustment cost.