The purpose of this paper is to analyze business cycle synchronization in the Croatian economy using various annualized growth rate variables over a period of eighteen years (1992-2010), de-trended by a Hodrick-Prescott filter, and following the Harding and Pagan methodological procedure in the determination of its turning points. Our conceptual analysis of synchronization is based on the technique of concordance indexes and correlation coefficients obtained by the HAC estimators. The main result of the research shows that there is a high degree of probability that dismissal of employees in the Croatian economy will coincide with the contraction phase in industry. The cyclic phase of growth in job creation in great measure coincides with the cyclic phase of growth in exports and the construction sector, as well as with tourist arrivals. There is an almost perfect synchronization between the cyclic phases of the construction sector and imports. The central conclusion of the paper is that this study can establish stylized facts about the dynamics of Croatian business cycles.
Sustainable tourism plays a dominant role in the economic well-being of some of the world’s countries, especially small ones. Tourism earnings account for a significant proportion of their GDP, and they have an overwhelming reliance on tourism as a source of service exports. The general trends in tourism earnings and volatilities in country risk ratings often go hand in hand, especially for small touristic countries in that region. The research presented in this paper provides a comparative assessment of the international country risk ratings and highlights the importance of their tourism earnings and tourism export. This study employs the ordered response and Poisson count panel data model for a sample of twenty-two countries most reliant on tourism, including Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the tourism determinants of sovereign credit ratings for those countries vary between different rating agencies (Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch’s). The key finding is that an increase in tourism earnings as a proportion of GDP and as the main export share in the total country export impairs the sovereign risk rating and turns out to be robust across the different methodologies.