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Open access

Jarosław Domaradzki, Zofia Ignasiak and Teresa Sławińska

Somatic and functional status of boys from various social and environmental categories

Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness status of adolescent boys from polluted industrial areas.

Material and methods: A group of 313 boys aged 11 - 15 years from 5 villages located in the copper mine area in South-Western Poland were classified by the degree of lead and cadmium pollution (high - very high) and by parents' education (primary - secondary or higher). Somatic (body height and mass, BMI, body fat content) and functional (handgrip strength, standing broad jump, sit-and-reach, plate tapping, 1-kg medicinal ball throw, reaction time) were recorded. The data were standardised against age-specific means and standard deviations and subjected to two-way ANOVA.

Results: Boys from more polluted area had significantly (p<0.01) higher BMI than those from the less polluted one but only when their parents had primary education. Explosive strength was significantly higher in the less polluted area (p<0.05) and when parents had higher than primary education (p<0.01). In case of reaction speed only the degree of environmental pollution had significant effect (p<0.05), no significant effects being noted for other variables

Conclusions: The results pointed to the importance of parents' education in shaping health-directed behaviours, which may compensate for the negative impact of a degraded environment.

Open access

Jarosław Domaradzki, Danuta Kaczmarek, Kazimierz Drabczyk and Piotr Panek


Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of indium-tin-oxide were evaporated on the surface of silicon wafers after phosphorous diffusion and on the reference glass substrates. The influence of deposition process parameters (electron beam current, oxygen flow and the substrate temperature) on optical and electrical properties of evaporated thin films were investigated by means of resistivity measurements and optical spectrophotometry. The performance of prepared thin films was judged by calculated figure of merit and the best result was obtained for the sample deposited on the substrate heated to the 100 °C and then removed from the deposition chamber and annealed in an air for 5 minutes at 400 °C. Refractive index and extinction coefficient were evaluated based on measured transmission spectra and used for designing of antireflection coating for solar cell. The obtained results showed that prepared TCO thin films are promising as a part of counter electrode in crystalline silicon solar cell construction.

Open access

Arosław Domaradzki, Zofia Ignasiak and Weronika Stodółka


Purpose. balance disorders are considered a significant problem in the elderly as they are associated with an increased incidence of falls. In effect, they can lead to numerous injuries, disability, or even death. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the risk of falling and various factors (morphology, socioeconomic status, physical fitness, and physical activity level) in adult and elderly women. Methods. The study population sample included 149 women aged 47-89 years living in the province of Lower Silesia, Poland. The women were divided into two age groups of younger (n =83,3cage = 59.09 years) and older (n = 66, xage = 70.77 years) participants. Measures included bMI, marital status, and physical activity, physical fitness, and education levels. Statistical analysis included a chi-squared (%2) test, cluster analysis, logistic regression, and correspondence analysis. Results. bMI and physical fitness were strongly correlated with falls: the higher the bMI (overweight or obese) and the lower physical fitness, the greater the risk of falling. The remaining variables showed a weak relationship with falling. Conclusions. The fall risk of women who are overweight or obese or with a low physical fitness level is approximately 2.5 times higher than those with normal and healthy levels of bMI and physical fitness. The presence of both risk factors increased the likelihood of falling.

Open access

Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska, Iga Krynicka-Pieleszek and Jarosław Domaradzki

Aktywność fizyczna dorosłych wrocławian - doniesienie wstępne

Aktywność fizyczna jest jednym z czynników wpływających na zdrowie i jakość życia. W pracy analizowano aktywność fizyczną dorosłej populacji Wrocławia: 299 kobiet i 206 mężczyzn w wieku 25-64 lat. Oceniano ją kwestionariuszem SDPAR. Wykazano, że odsetek kobiet i mężczyzn deklarujących aktywny tryb życia w czasie wolnym wynosi nieco powyżej 63%. Najwięcej osób podejmuje trening zdrowotny 2-3 razy w tygodniu. Najczęściej podawanymi przez respondentów przyczynami hipokinezji są brak wolnego czasu oraz zły stan zdrowia. Wśród osób nieaktywnych około 20% nie widzi potrzeby realizowania treningu zdrowotnego, co jest zjawiskiem niepokojącym.

Open access

Zofia Ignasiak, Antonina Kaczorowska, Aleksandra Katan and Jarosław Domaradzki

Sprawność ruchowa kobiet w starszym wieku oceniana testem Fullertona

Wzrost odsetka osób w ostatnich latach, które przekroczyły 60. rok życia spowodował zwiększone zainteresowanie środowisk naukowych problemami ludzi starszych. Najczęściej oceniana jest jakość życia, stan zdrowotny, styl życia i żywienie oraz warunki społeczno-bytowe. Autorzy wskazują, że pozytywne zachowania prozdrowotne osób starszych sprzyjają korzystniejszej jakości życia. Celem pracy jest ocena sprawności ruchowej kobiet-seniorek reprezentujących odmienne środowiska bytowe. Materiał i metody badań: badaniami objęto kobiety miejskie powyżej 60. roku życia, mieszkanki domów pomocy społecznej oraz ich rówieśniczki uczestniczące w leczeniu sanatoryjnym. Do oceny sprawności ruchowej wykorzystano test Fullertona. Test ten pozwala ocenić podstawową, codzienną sprawność ruchową i spełnia istotny warunek - zapewnia bezpieczeństwo badanej osoby w trakcie wykonywania zadania ruchowego. Badania wskazują, że warunki socjalno-bytowe różnicują sprawność ruchową badanych kobiet na korzyść nie mieszkających w domach pomocy społecznej.

Open access

Robert Malina, Teresa Sławinska, Zofia Ignasiak, Krystyna Rożek, Katarzyna Kochan, Jarosław Domaradzki and Jarosław Fugiel

Sex Differences in Growth and Performance of Track and Field Athletes 11-15 Years

Objective: To evaluate sex differences in functional performances of youth track and field athletes.

Methods: Four tests of functional capacity were administered to 309 youth 11-15 years training for track and field at sport schools, 136 boys and 173 girls. Grip strength, standing long jump, 2 kg medicine ball throw and 20 m sprint were measured; height, weight and adiposity were also. Two age groups were compared, 11-13 and 14-15 years. ANCOVA was used to test sex differences by age group in the total sample (disciplines combined) and specific disciplines; age, height and weight were covariates.

Results: For the total sample, males in both age groups performed better than females in the four tests but sex differences were greater among 14-15 year olds. Within disciplines, sex differences among sprinters and middle distance and distance runners were greater at 14-15 years. Results varied for general athletics; the magnitude of sex differences was similar for strength in both age groups, greater for the throw at 11-13 years and greater for the jump and sprint at 14-15 years.

Conclusion: Although sex differences in performance were apparent among athletes 11-13 years, they were greater among athletes 14-15 years, reflecting to a large extent the male adolescent spurt in body size, muscle mass, strength and power. Sex differences were more established in sprinters and middle distance and distance runners, and more variable in participants in general athletics.

Open access

Robert Malina, Krystyna Rożek, Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska, Jarosław Fugiel, Katarzyna Kochan and Jarosław Domaradzki

Growth and Functional Characteristics of Male Athletes 11-15 Years of Age

Purpose. To evaluate the growth and functional characteristics of male athletes 11-15 years of age. Basic procedures. The sample included 190 boys, 10.5-15.4 years, undergoing training of sport schools for track and field (136) and other sports (54). Height, weight, three skinfolds and % Fat (NIR) were measured. Grip strength, standing long jump, 2 kg medicine ball throw and 20 m sprint were tested. Track and field athletes were compared by discipline and to athletes in other sports using MANCOVA (multivariate analysis of covariance). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, body size and adiposity to the four functional indicators in two age groups, those 11-13 years and 14-15 years. Main findings. All variables except the standing long jump and 20 m sprint differed significantly by track and field discipline. Only height and ball throw differed among athletes in other sports. Track and field athletes had a significantly lower BMI and % Fat and performed better in the jump and sprint than athletes in other sports. Variance explained in each of the functional indicators was greater in younger than in older athletes. The sum of skinfolds and % Fat exerted a negative influence on all functional indicators. Conclusions. Trends in body size of male athletes attending sport schools were consistent with observations for youth male athletes in several sports. Height, weight and adiposity accounted for significant portions of variation in the four functional indicators in each age group, but the explained variance was higher in younger athletes.

Open access

Robert Malina, Zofia Ignasiak, Krystyna Rożek, Teresa Sławińska, Jarosław Domaradzki, Jarosław Fugiel and Katarzyna Kochan

Growth, Maturity and Functional Characteristics of Female Athletes 11 - 15 Years of Age

Objective. To evaluate the growth, maturity and functional characteristics of female sport school participants 11 - 15 years of age. Material and methods. The sample included 200 girls aged from 10.55 to 15.42 years. The majority (173) trained in track and field. Height, weight, three skinfolds and % Fat (NIR) were measured. Grip strength, standing long jump, 2 kg medicine ball throw and 20 m sprint were tested. Athletes were compared by menarcheal status and track and field discipline with MANCOVA. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, height, weight and adiposity to the four functional indicators in two age groups, 11 - 13 years and 14 - 15 years. Results. Median age at menarche was 12.99 ± 1.11 years. None of the functional tests differed between pre- and post-menarcheal athletes 13 years, while only grip strength differed between late and early maturing athletes 14 - 15 years. Height, weight and % Fat, but no performance items differed among track and field athletes by discipline. Team and individual sport athletes were heavier, fatter and stronger than track and field athletes but the latter performed better in the sprint and jump. Height, weight and adiposity accounted for significant portions of variation in the four functional indicators in each age group. Conclusions. Trends in body size of female athletes attending sport schools were generally consistent with observations for female athletes in several sports. Percentages of variance explained in functional indicators were greater in athletes 11 - 13 than 14 - 15 years of age.

Open access

J. Domaradzki, D. Kaczmarek, M. Mazur, D. Wojcieszak, J. Halarewicz, S. Glodek and P. Domanowski


The paper presents results of optical and surface morphology investigations of semitransparent silver single thin films deposited on glass substrate in relation to their heat radiation treatment. The thickness of 15 nm for the silver thin films was selected using computer designing of optical spectra and the films were deposited using electron beam evaporation process. Optical transmission and reflection were investigated for as deposited samples and after exposition to heat radiation from quartz-halogen lamp. The changes in the optical spectra were observed which suggested degradation of deposited heat mirrors. Structure and surface morphology studies performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy allowed us to conclude about formation of nanometric silver islands, regularly distributed over the surface of the glass substrate after exposure to heat treatment.

Open access

Damian Wojcieszak, Michal Mazur, Danuta Kaczmarek and Jaroslaw Domaradzki


In this paper, structural and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanopowders doped with 1 at.% of cerium, cobalt, cooper and iron have been compared. Nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM, EDS and XRD methods. Moreover, their photocatalytic activity was determined based on decomposition of methyl orange. Results were compared with undoped powder. The structural investigations have revealed that all prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4 nm to 5 nm. The distribution of the dopant was homogenous in case of all manufactured powders. Moreover, for TiO2 doped with Co, Ce and Cu, aggregation effect was not as large as for TiO2:Fe. The results of photocatalytic decomposition showed that self-cleaning activity of all prepared nanopowders was higher as compared to undoped one. Due to the efficiency of these reactions (after 5 hours) nanopowders can be ordered as: TiO2:Co > TiO2:Ce > TiO2:Cu > TiO2:Fe > TiO2.