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Jaroslav David and Tereza Klemensová

Abstract

The paper focuses on German forms of place names in Czechia and Slovakia, and Hungarian forms of place names in Slovakia, especially on their revitalization and perception after 1989. This concerns their thematization, which is illustrated on the Czech National Corpus and the Slovak National Corpus materials, and on the 1990s discussions about their restoration. German place-name forms are not considered to be a crucial political topic these days; however, Hungarian forms still represent a conflict potential. German forms in Czechia are only thematized in poetry and fiction books, in order to evoke lasting time and the complicated modern Czech history. On the other hand, they are predominantly used in trade names as a marketing tool aimed at German (localization function) and Czech customers (allusive function). In Slovakia, Hungarian forms are not used in marketing and are not thematized in fiction as a positive value connected with the national history.

Open access

Jarosław Majka, Alexander Larionov, David Gee, Jerzy Czerny and Jaroslav Pršek

Neoproterozoic pegmatite from Skoddefjellet, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen: Additional evidence for c. 640 Ma tectonothermal event in the Caledonides of Svalbard

Neoproterozoic (c. 640 Ma) amphibolite facies metamorphism and deformation have been shown recently to have affected the Isbjørnhamna and Eimfjellet Complex of Wedel Jarlsberg Land in southwestern Spitsbergen. New SHRIMP zircon U-Pb and in situ electron microprobe monazite and uraninite U-Th-total Pb ages are presented here on a pegmatite occurring within the Isbjørnhamna metasedimentary rocks. Although the dated zircons are full of inclusions, have high-U contents and are metamict and hence have experienced notable Pb-loss, the new Cryogenian ages are consistent with the age of regional metamorphism of the host metasediments, providing additional evidence for a clear distinction of the Southwestern Province from the other parts of the Svalbard Caledonides.

Open access

David Zahradnik, Jaroslav Uchytil, Roman Farana and Daniel Jandacka

Abstract

A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to collect the kinematic data. The one-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, where the landing type was the factor, was used for comparing the valgus moment and ground reaction force on the right lower limb. ANOVA showed that the type of landing has a main effect on the valgus moment on the right lower limb (F) = 5.96, p = 0.019df = 1.18, partial ƞ2 = 0.239 and SP = 0.693). Furthermore, it did not show a main effect on the vertical reaction force on the right lower limb ((F)=2.77, p=0.090, df=1.55, partial ƞ2= 0.128 and SP=0.448). The highest valgus moment occurred during the run-back landing. This moment, however, did not have any effect within the first 100 ms after initial contact with the ground, but rather upon the subsequent motion carried out when stepping back off the net. A comparison between a run-back landing and a step-back landing showed relevant higher values of vertical ground reaction forces during the run-back landing.

Open access

David Vykydal, Petra Halfarová, Jaroslav Nenadál, Jiří Plura and Edita Hekelová

Abstract

Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers’ perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors’ experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies’ environments.

Open access

Roman Farana, Daniel Jandacka, Jaroslav Uchytil, David Zahradnik and Gareth Irwin

Abstract

The importance of technique selection on elbow injury risk has been identified for the key round off skill in female gymnastics, with a focus on the second contact limb. The aim of this study was to shift the focus to the first contact limb and investigate the biomechanical injury risk during parallel and T-shape round-off (RO) techniques. Seven international-level female gymnasts performed 10 trials of the RO to back-handspring with parallel and T-shape hand positions. Synchronized kinematic (3D motion analysis system; 247 Hz) and kinetic (two force plates; 1235 Hz) data were collected for each trial. The t-test with effect size statistics determined differences between the two techniques. No significant differences were found for vertical, anterior posterior and resultant ground reaction force, elbow joint kinematics and kinetics. Specifically, the results highlighted that change in technique in RO skills did not influence first contact limb elbow joint mechanics and therefore, injury risk. The findings of the present study suggest the injury potential of this skill is focused on the second limb during the parallel technique of this fundamental gymnastic skill.

Open access

Frantisek Vaverka, Daniel Jandačka, David Zahradník, Jaroslav Uchytil, Roman Farana, Matej Supej and Janez Vodičar

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine how elite volleyball players employed the arm swing (AS) to enhance their jump performance. The study assessed how the AS influenced the duration and magnitude of the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during the main phases (preparatory, braking and accelerating) of the countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ), the starting position of the body at the beginning of the accelerating phase and the moment when the AS began contributing to increasing the jump height. Eighteen elite volleyball players performed three CMVJs with and without an AS. Kinetics and kinematics data were collected using two Kistler force plates and the C-motion system. The time and force variables were evaluated based on the VGRF, and the position of the body and the trajectory of the arm movement were determined using kinematic analysis. The AS improved the CMVJ by increasing the jump height by 38% relative to jumping without an AS. The AS significantly shortened the braking phase and prolonged the accelerating phase, however, it did not influence the preparatory phase or the overall jump duration. The AS also significantly increased the average force during the accelerating phase as well as the accelerating impulse. The AS upward began at 76% into the overall jump duration. The AS did not influence the body position at the beginning of the accelerating phase. These findings can be used to improve performance of the CMVJ with the AS and in teaching beginning volleyball players proper jumping technique.

Open access

Frantisek Vaverka, Zlatava Jakubsova, Daniel Jandacka, David Zahradnik, Roman Farana, Jaroslav Uchytil, Matej Supej and Janez Vodicar

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine how an additional load influences the force-vs-time relationship of the countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ). The participants that took part in the experiment were 18 male university students who played sport recreationally, including regular games of volleyball. They were asked to perform a CMVJ without involving the arms under four conditions: without and with additional loads of 10%, 20%, and 30% of their body weight (BW). The vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by a force plate. The GRF was used to calculate the durations of the preparatory, braking, and acceleration phases, the total duration of the jump, force impulses during the braking and acceleration phases, average forces during the braking and acceleration phases, and the maximum force of impact at landing. Results were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA. Increasing the additional load prolonged both the braking and acceleration phases of the jump, with statistically significant changes in the duration of the acceleration phase found for an additional load of 20% BW. The magnitude of the force systematically and significantly increased with the additional load. The force impulse during the acceleration phase did not differ significantly between jumps performed with loads of 20% and 30% BW. The results suggest that the optimal additional load for developing explosive strength in vertical jumping ranges from 20% to 30% of BW, with this value varying between individual subjects.