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Jaroslav Belás

Abstract

The importance of ethical standards for financial markets is based on the purpose of commercial banks and other financial institutions which operate with money of others. Besides significant economic implications, the financial crisis has also revealed considerable lack of moral values in commercial banking, which has been reflected by a very unscrupulous approach of bankers to their clients. The crisis has also caused a fundamental turnaround in public opinions on commercial banking and increased the pressure on application of moral principles in banking, which represents an appropriate complement of banking regulations.

The aim of this article is to determine the basic attributes of business ethics in commercial banking and quantify changes in moral attitudes of bank employees in Slovakia through own research, which occurred during the financial crisis. Moral attitudes of bank employees are analyzed in relation to reaching customer satisfaction.

The research focuses on identificating satisfaction of bank employees and also on how their satisfaction reflects acceptance of customers’ needs. A part of the research also deals with evaluation of customer satisfaction in the same timeframe.

The results of our empirical research show that the low level of satisfaction and loyalty of bank employees is transferred to the low acceptance rate of customer need to sell bank’s products in the banking sector in Slovakia. The low level of satisfaction and loyalty has also caused a decline in the overall customer satisfaction. Index of personal satisfaction of bank’s customers has slightly increased in the examined period, but its current level is still very low.

Open access

Jaroslav Belás, Michal Korauš and Lenka Gabčová

Abstract

Electronic banking is an important area of banking activities, under which the commercial banks try to retain existing clients or attract new customers through a better quality of service and decrease in prices of these services. The aim of the article was to examine selected attributes of security and the use of electronic banking and quantify differences in approach of the bank customers by gender, education and age. Our research confirmed that the dominant part of banking customers use electronic access when managing their personal finances. We found out that there are some differences in the approach of the bank customers in terms of their education. The customers with higher education to a greater extent and more intensively use electronic banking. In the safety area, we did not find any significant differences between banking clients by gender, education and age. The only exception is the finding that clients up to 35 years are significantly more confident in the use of electronic banking through public networks.

Open access

Ashiqur Rahman, M. Twyeafur Rahman and Jaroslav Belas

Abstract

This paper explores the determinants of access to finance for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the context of three Central European countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Hungary. The data set of the research is obtained from the BEEPS survey, which is conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This paper empirically analyses firms not only from the SMEs point of view, but also shows results for micro, small and medium enterprises separately. Additionally, we have analysed the determinants of access to finance for SMEs at each country level for an in-depth understanding of country-level variations in SME financing. The results indicate that micro firms and firms owned and operated by women are experiencing a shortage of credits from banks. On the other hand, we found a positive relationship between the pledge of collateral and access to finance. With respect to the medium firms, we found evidence that innovative firms have a larger amount of credit from banks. The empirical results also suggest that the loan size increases as the interest rates increase in particular for SMEs on the whole and for micro-firms, although the interest rate is in a negative relationship with the loan size in Czech Republic.

Open access

Jaroslav Belás, Yuriy Bilan, Aleksandr Ključnikov, Zuzana Vincúrová and Jiří Macháček

Abstract

The aim of this article was to define, quantify and compare the significant attributes of business risk for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the selected regions of Slovakia. The data was collected through a questionnaire. The whole research was conducted in the Bratislava region on a sample of 102 SMEs, in the region of Trencin on a sample of 105 SMEs and in the Zilina region on a sample of 168 SMEs. Thus we compared important factors of business risk in the most economically developed region of the Slovak capital to the average regions of Trencin and Zilina. On the basis of the results of our research, we can conclude that the most important business risk is market risk in all regions. The average value of perceived market risk was higher than 50%. For this reason entrepreneurs have indicated the existence of negative trends in performance and profitability of their companies.