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  • Author: Jarosława Belowska x
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Introduction. Modern nursing practice requires Nursing students to expand their knowledge both in the field of specialized nursing and learning the basics of medicine, as based on scientific evidence. The dissemination of research activities in nursing and the development of the profession, knowledge and practice based on Evidence-based Nursing may contribute to the increase of the effectiveness and improving the quality of healthcare services. Nursing teaching curricula should include subjects related to Evidence-based Medicine, such as scientific research methodology or critical analysis of scientific literature.

Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the knowledge and attitudes of nursing students towards Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) and Evidence-based Nursing Practice (EBNP).

Material and methods. Out of 127 Master’s degree students in Nursing at the Medical University of Warsaw (4 men), 72% work as a nurse. Mean age of the study group was 26.55 years (min. 22, max. 51, SD=7.52) with 63% of the students attending full-time studies, with 90% being students of the first year. Some 53% earned their bachelor’s degree in Nursing in 2013. A standardized Evidence – Based Practice Profile Questionnaire from University of South Australia, quantitative analysis of the study results.

Results. Nearly 30% of the respondents have never encountered EBM or EBNP during their time at the University (n=41). Most students intend to use relevant scientific literature in order to update their knowledge (n=68) and to upgrade their skills, so as to integrate EBNP into their everyday professional practice (n=67). Some 60% of the respondents deem scientific reports useful for their work (n=76) but nearly half of them regards clinical experience as more important than the results of scientific studies, when it comes to making the right decisions in their professional practice (n=56). Nearly a half of the studied group (n=66) have never heard about the term minimum clinically worthwhile effect and only one person declared the correct explanation systematic review (n=1). 42% declare reading published scientific studies once a month but nearly 30% have never referred scientific findings to their own diagnosis (n=41) and 40% have never assessed its methodological correctness (n=51).

Conclusions. 1. The educational programs in the framework of Nursing studies should be supplemented with subjects of EBM and EBNP, so as to expand the nursing students’ knowledge and let them reap the benefits of using the latest study results in their future professional practice. 2. The level of knowledge about the principles of assessment of reliability of scientific evidence was strongly insufficient and requires urgent supplementation of knowledge and skills of students in this area. 3. It is necessary for students to update their knowledge, particularly when it comes to using the latest scientific literature in everyday clinical practice and skills connected with critical analysis of scientific evidence.


Introduction. The awareness of benefits arising from the use of the latest results of scientific research (EBNP – Evidence-Based Nursing Practice) among departmental and charge nurses is a necessary condition to ensure effective and safe health services and nursing care meeting the highest standards of patient care.

Aim. The comparison of knowledge of and attitudes towards EBNP among nurses depending on their position.

Material and methods. Twenty one departmental nurses (PO) (mean age 50.38 years, min. 37, max. 62, SD=7.35) and 20 Bachelor's degree students of a bridge programme (SSP) (mean age 43 years, min. 34, max. 55, SD=6.37). Qualitative study and analysis of the results, structured interview, extended focus.

Results. PO and SSP were not able to define the acronyms EBM and EBP correctly and did not have detailed knowledge of the criteria for assessment of reliability of scientific literature. A majority of DN was familiar with the available journals for nurses and was aware of benefits resulting from using EBNP. The use of EBNP in everyday clinical practice in SSP group was limited by a lack of time, insufficient knowledge of English and access to the Internet, as well as working at the position that makes taking decisions on developing procedures and standards for nursing care impossible.


1. The level of knowledge about EBNP in both groups was inadequate and needs urgent supplementation of knowledge and skills of nurses with reference to this subject area.

2. The attitudes of nurses towards EBNP were different depending on their work position. Departmental nurses were aware of benefits resulting from using the most recent study results in everyday clinical practice and being up-to-date with medical knowledge.

3. The boundaries limiting the use of EBNP in everyday clinical practice by the study participants were objective and they require system changes with reference to the organization of work and the system of continuing education.


Introduction. As these define the status of the patient during the provision of health services, patients' rights are a very important component of Poland's medical law. The observance of these rights is a prerequisite for the proper performance of the nursing profession. Theoretical and practical preparation in this area is thus already a necessity in the students' education process.

Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the opinions and attitudes of nursing students with respect to problems in the field of the observance of the rights of patients in Poland.

Material and methods. The study was built upon the opinions expressed by 375 students (362 women and 13 men) of the first and second year. These were full-time and part-time students in master's studies in nursing, of the Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw. The study employed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of essays.

Results. The results of the study indicate that 59 percent of the respondents report being frequent witnesses of violation of patient's rights. In particular, that which noted were the rights to privacy and dignity (98%), to receive sought-after information (91%) and to suitable health-care (85%). Another right seen to have been violated in the respondents' workplace was the patient's right to the maintenance of the confidentiality of patient-related information by medical personnel (77%). The respondents, while seeing violation of the patient's rights by other employees, declared their own adherence to these rights in their own professional practice.

Conclusions. 1. The majority of the study group repeatedly witnessed violation of patients' rights. It would, therefore, be advisable to monitor the observance of the rights of patients by medical personnel, and to see to the professional liability of those who flagrantly breaking the law. 2. Research findings indicate that ethics should be given more emphasis in teaching future health professionals in the course of their medical studies. 3. The analysis of the available literature and our own study show that the share of medical personnel in providing information about the patients' rights is minimal. It would be advisable for medical personnel to be given an opportunity to acquire new skills and competences in this field. 4. Awareness of the existence and knowledge of the patient's rights, not only among medical students and health professionals, but also among patients, is crucial to their observance by the former and their exercise by the latter. It should, therefore, be spread and raised. 5. Training and thematic courses in patient's rights should be provided in order to enable medical personnel to acquire new skills and competences in this field, with the end result of improving their observance of patient's rights. 6. A qualitative analysis constitutes an innovative and effective way of carrying out research and interpreting research findings, being a valuable and reasonable method of conducting a survey, and in exploring the attitudes of students and health-care workers towards patient's rights.


Aim. The first issue of Nursing in the 21st Century was published in 2002. The journal is dedicated to provide information on innovations in nursing, midwifery, as well as other health sciences. It includes peer-reviewed meta-analyses and review papers, original research studies on nursing and related areas, case reports, as well as discussions, comments, and reviews. The study aimed to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of articles published in Nursing In the 21st Century.

Materials and Methods. In the study, the authors looked at a total of 247 articles published between 2010 and 2015.

Results. As many as 247 articles were published in 19 issues of Nursing In the 21st Century during the period that the authors looked at. There were some 13 articles per every single issue on average. Original papers and meta-analyses were most frequently published types of publication. There were also other types of articles, like reports, communications, reviews, and case studies but they were only a tiny fraction of the overall number of publications.

Conclusion. Authors’ review of the articles published in the journal revealed a clear tendency to issue specialist and clinical publications on nursing.


Introduction. To work safely, knowledge of law is crucial for midwives who should be familiar with the midwife’s rights and duties as well as their professional responsibility. Aim. Assessment of knowledge of midwives about their professional responsibility. Material and methods. A total of 103 MA Midwifery students of the Medical University of Warsaw, including 55 working and 48 not working as midwives. A diagnostic poll, original anonymous questionnaire, 25 close-ended questions, 8 openended questions. Statistical analysis: STATISTICA 10.0, Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.05. Results. Seventy-one percent of the study participants had knowledge of the binding provisions of law and 83% considered this kind of knowledge as necessary in their professional activity. Twenty-four percent of the total did not know any legal regulations. Thirty percent was not familiar with the Nurses and Midwives Act. Only 52% of the study participants were knowledgeable about the legal protection of midwives and indicated the protection established for public officers. Forty-six percent of the total said that the Act on Professional Self-Government of Nurses and Midwives of July 1st, 2011 regulates the issue of self-governance. As many as 30 study participants knew that membership in the self-governing body of midwives is obligatory. Conclusions. Knowledge of nurses about professional responsibility under amended provisions of law is insufficient and does not improve with experience as a midwife. Due to the fact that new acts on professional responsibility of midwives were implemented in Poland beginning in January 1st, 2012, it is advisable to extend qualifications and knowledge of midwives in order to improve their knowledge of professional issues. Midwives should constantly update their knowledge of legal regulations on their profession


Aim. Quality assessment of the test entrance examination used for selection of candidates for full-time second-level studies in Midwifery at the Medical University of Warsaw.

Material and methods. Five grade-years of candidates (N = 335, 100% of women) who took the entrance exam for Midwifery between 2009/10 and 2013/14. Data collected was related to results of the test examination for studies (total score and scores divided into thematic blocks). Parameters of descriptive statistics were set. Ease and differentiating power of questions and reliability of tests were assessed (alpha-Cronbach). Discriminatory indexes for thematic blocks of the test were set. Calculations were performed in STATISTICA 12.5.

Results. The most optimal selection of questions in terms of ease and differentiating power was recorded for the 2009/10 test. None of the editions of the exam met the minimum requirements for the internal consistency of measurement. The best results concerning the reliability of the measurement was observed for the 2009/10 test. Analysis of differentiating power of questions in thematic blocks indicates the diversity of this quality parameter. Very high differentiating index was recorded for the block of questions on specialist care in 2009/10 (0.535), and the lowest in 2013/14 exam (0.150).

Conclusions. 1. It is necessary to improve the quality of exam questions in terms of difficulty and differentiating power. 2. Quality of subsequent editions of the admission examination should be monitored, in particular with regard to the control of the reliability of this qualifying tool.


Introduction. Initially, a transplant coordinator assisted in the process of removal and transplantation of organs. The most important rule in the Polish legislation is the Act of July 17th, 2009, amending the Act on removal, preservation, and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs. Professional qualifications of a transplant coordinator are specified by the Regulation of the Minister of Health of December 4th, 2009 on detailed conditions of removal, preservation, and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs. Aim. The study aimed to assess the knowledge of medical personnel about the function of a transplant coordinator with reference to the current Polish legislation. Material and methods. The study was conducted in April 2013 among 100 selected health professionals (25 physicians, 62 nurses, and 13 persons representing other medical professions) with the use of a questionnaire comprising 42 close-ended simple choice questions and one multiple-choice question. They were referring to various aspects associated with the legal axiology of transplantation, procedure of organ donation, and tasks of a donation coordinator, as well as one open-ended question about the age of respondents. Results. Statistically significant differences between the occupational groups were found in relation to questions about legal and medical aspects. As many as 21 nurses (34%), 26 physicians (92%), and 6 persons representing other medical professions (46%) (p<0.000) provided the correct answer to a question referring to determination of death, and 19 nurses (31%), 7 physicians (28%), and 5 persons representing other medical professions (p<0.021) answered correctly to a question about the key premise to determine brain death. Conclusions. 1. The knowledge of medical personnel about the function of a transplant coordinator and the legal provisions concerning brain death determination needs to be supplemented. 2. There is a need of constantly supplementing knowledge of medical personnel about the clinical aspects of transplantation


Aim of the study. Starting on January 1, 2016, nurses and midwives (NM) acquire extending the professional powers. Assessing the reliability and validity of a questionnaire developed to evaluate the knowledge of and attitudes towards acquiring extending the professional powers of NM.

Material and methodology. Forty-two students, voluntary, anonymous, original questionnaire study, 11 questions (knowledge) and 32 statements (attitudes), the Likert scale.

Results. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient (α>0.70). Assessment of validity: indirect estimation of theoretical validity by identifying an internal correlation on the scale. Assessment of differences between the students: Kruskal-Wallis test, α=0.05, 11 knowledge-related questions - the easiness: 0.52, the mean differentiating power of 0.21. Cronbach’s alpha: 0.671. The subscale 1 comprising 26 statements underwent a factor analysis with two variables. The structure of subscale 2 (6 items) is uniform. The comparative analysis of students does not show differences by their majors (Kruskal-Wallis test).


  1. Assessment of reliability and validity of the questionnaire has demonstrated that it is a proper tool to evaluate attitudes towards extending professional powers of NM.
  2. Assessment of the questionnaire has confirmed that there is a need to modify the knowledge-related questions.
  3. The study should be continued among a greater number of NM that would be more diverse.


Introduction. The profession of a nurse should be practised along with the standards of the most recent medical knowledge and law.

Aim. The authors aimed at assessing the relationship between nurse’s education and their knowledge of the legal regulations, taking into account nurses’ performance at work.

Material and methods. A total of 91 nurses were included in the study group. The mean age of the nurses was 34 years (min. 22, max. 63). Group 1: 32 nurses with medium-level education, group 2: 59 nurses with higher-level education. The study tool was a voluntary and anonymous survey questionnaire the authors’ own design, consisting 36 questions. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using STATISTICA 10.0 (Medical University of Warsaw licence), nonparametric U Mann-Whitney Test α<0.05).

Results. 69 nurses declared they knew the legal acts regulating their profession, Group 2 members were significantly more likely to know them (p<0.007). Nurses with higher education were statistically more likely to be aware of the independent character of the profession they practised (p<0.002). Most nurses were aware of their right to refuse a doctor’s order in case it is noncompliant with their conscience (p=NS).

Conclusions. Even though the respondents had relatively good knowledge of legal regulations concerning their profession, it needs to be complemented, for instance through postgraduate education. In the study group, education affected the level of knowledge of nurses. Particular attention should therefore be given to the provision of complementary knowledge of the principles of practising the profession of a nurse to the group of nurses with medium-level education.


Introduction. An independent prescribing certain drugs, including issuing prescriptions, as well as an entitlement to refer patients for certain diagnostic tests, constitute the key competences of an advanced nurse/midwife practice.

Aim. To analyze knowledge and attitudes of departmental nurses (DN) towards extending professional powers of nurses and midwives.

Material and methods. The sample involved 23 DN (women: 100%) working in the Independent Public Children’s Teaching Hospital in Warsaw. The mean age was 49 years (mode and median: 50; min. 31, max. 61, SD=7.95). The mean of professional experience was 30 years (mode: 25, median: 30, min. 17, max. 40, SD=6.38). A voluntary and anonymous questionnaire with 10 questions referring to knowledge and 32 statements concerning attitudes evaluated in the Likert scale was conducted.

Results. Almost all DN knew that prescribing drugs is a right and not an obligation. Nearly half of the DN knew when the new regulations shall enter into force. DN believed that the new regulations shall improve patient care and increase patient’s comfort and access to services. DN concern about preparation of nurses and midwives for new competences.


1. The study group’s level of knowledge about the new competences was insufficient and requires supplementing.

2. The attitudes of the study group towards the new competences were not unambiguous. It should, however, be noted that the study was conducted in a specialized children’s teaching hospital, where the application of the amended regulations is limited.

3. Although the nursing management staff supports the legislative changes, they object to the process of introducing them. This applies particularly to the necessity of an adequate preparation of nurses and midwives.

4. The study should be continued among a representative group of nurses with a similar level of education, professional experience, and place of work, with particular consideration of nurses working in the outpatient health care.