Development of early immune response in piglets with subclinical swine influenza was investigated. Fourteen, seronegative piglets were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 subtype. Temperature and clinical signs were assessed daily. Leukocyte proportions and concentrations were analysed on a haematology analyser. Antibodies against SIVs were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay. To measure influenza-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI), the proliferation assay was performed. The real time reverse transcription PCR method was used for detection of SIV. No relevant respiratory or systemic clinical signs were observed. The presence of SIV RNA in nasal swabs from all infected piglets was confirmed between 2 and 5 dpi. The overall number of leukocytes did not differ during the study. The number of medium-sized cells (MID) was significantly higher on 2 and 4 dpi, as compared to day 0 level. The percentage of lymphocytes decreased from 74% on day 0 to 67.06% on 4 dpi, while the percentage of MID significantly increased at the same time. In control pigs no significant changes were observed. All infected pigs exhibited specific antibodies between 7 and 10 dpi. Specific CMI was observed before specific antibodies were present. Results of our research indicate that kinetics of the humoral and CMI response during subclinical infection is similar to that observed in clinical form of the disease.
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementation of sows’ and growing pigs’ diets with three newly developed synbiotic and two extant commercial probiotic products on selected immune parameters under field conditions.
Material and Methods
The study was performed on 30 sows and 48 piglets of the Danbred breed. Immune parameters such as concentration and proportion of white blood cells and their subpopulations, immunoglobulins amount in serum, and serum concentration of cytokines and acute phase proteins were recorded with the use of a haematology analyser and ELISA kits.
No significant differences between treatment groups and controls were found with regard to the immune parameters evaluated except for serum immunoglobulin concentration, which was significantly increased by synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D.
The results of the study indicate that the synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D are worthy of further investigation as promising candidates to improve the immune status of healthy sows and their offspring.
The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.