The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of the Scandinavian Caledonides is an archetypal terrain for high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. However, the vast majority of lithologies occurring there bear no, or only limited, evidence for HP or UHP metamorphism. The studied Midsund HP granulite occurs on the island of Otrøy, a locality known for the occurrence of the UHP eclogites and mantle-derived, garnet-bearing ultramafics. The Midsund granulite consists of plagioclase, garnet, clinopyroxene, relict phengitic mica, biotite, rutile, quartz, amphibole, ilmenite and titanite, among the most prominent phases. Applied thermodynamic modelling in the NCKFMMnASHT system resulted in a pressure–temperature (P–T) pseudosection that provides an intersection of compositional isopleths of XMg (Mg/Mg+Fe) in garnet, albite in plagioclase and XNa (Na/Na+Ca) in clinopyroxene in the stability field of melt + plagioclase + garnet + clinopyroxene + amphibole + ilmenite. The obtained thermodynamic model yields P–T conditions of 1.32–1.45 GPa and 875–970 °C. The relatively high P–T recorded by the Midsund granulite may be explained as an effect of equilibration due to exhumation from HP (presumably UHP) conditions followed by a period of stagnation under HT at lower-to-medium crustal level. The latter seems to be a more widespread phenomenon in the WGR than previously thought and may well explain commonly calculated pressure contrasts between neighboring lithologies in the WGR and other HP–UHP terranes worldwide.
Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).
We report on the occurrence of peculiar Ba- and Ti-enriched dark mica in metasedimentary rocks that underwent high-pressure metamorphism in the diamond stability field followed by decompression to granulite facies conditions. The mica occurs as well-developed preserved laths in a quartzofeldspathic matrix. The mean concentrations of BaO and TiO2 in the mica are 11.54 and 7.80wt%, respectively. The maximum amounts of these components are 13.38wt% BaO and 8.45wt% TiO2. The mean crystallochemical formula can be expressed as (K0.54Ba0.39Na0.02Ca0.01)Σ0.96(Fe1.37Mg0.85Ti0.50Al0.29Mn0.01Cr0.01)Σ3.03(Si2.59Al1.41)Σ4.00O10(OH1.30O0.66F0.02S0.01)Σ1.99, with oxyannite, oxy-ferrokinoshitalite and siderophyllite as dominating end-members. Based on the petrographical observations, it is proposed that the dark mica was formed at a rather late stage in the evolution of the parental rock, i.e. under granulite facies conditions.
The northern extent of the Scandinavian Caledonides includes the Skibotn Nappe Complex of still debated structural position. This paper is focused on part of this complex and presents new U–Th–total Pb monazite dating results for the migmatitic gneiss of the Kåfjord Nappe. The rocks show mineral assemblage of garnet + plagioclase + biotite + white mica + kyanite + rutile ± K-feldspar ± sillimanite. Thermodynamic modelling suggests that garnet was stable at P–T conditions of ca. 680–720 °C and 8–10 kbars in the stability field of kyanite and the rocks underwent partial melting during exhumation following a clockwise P–T path. This episode is dated to 444 ± 12 Ma using chemical Th–U–total Pb dating of the Y-depleted monazite core. Second episode highlighted by growth of secondary white mica resulted from subsequent overprint in amphibolite and greenschist facies. Fluid assisted growth of the Y-enriched monazite rim at 419 ± 8 Ma marks the timing of the nappe emplacement. Age of migmatization and thrusting in the Kåfjord Nappe is similar to the Kalak Nappe Complex, and other units of the Middle Allochthon to the south. Nevertheless, the obtained results do not allow for unambiguous definition of the tectonostratigraphic position of the Skibotn Nappe Complex.
The purpose of this study is to determine the role of metamorphism and thereby identify the preserved magmatic signature in metavolcanics from Wedel Jarlsberg Land in southwestern Svalbard. Samples have been collected from late Precambrian metavolcanics occurring within metasedimentary rocks of the Sofiebogen Group, as well as dikes cutting older metasedimentary rocks of the Deilegga Group. The volcanic rocks were metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions during the Caledonian Orogeny. To investigate the role of metamorphism, we present petrography, major and trace element geochemistry, and use factor analysis as a tool to identify correlations that correspond to primary magmatic signals.
The metavolcanics are classified as subalkaline basalt to basaltic andesite and they contain relicts of primary clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The metamorphic minerals are actinolite, secondary plagioclase, chlorite and minerals belonging to the epidote group. Major element variations are highly scattered with no obvious trends observed. The HFSE and REE show strong trends attributed to fractional crystallization. The LILE, Th and La show elevated contents in some samples.
Factor analysis shows that the HFSE and REE are well correlated. The LILE form a separate well correlated group, while the major elements are not correlated, except for Na2O, Fe2O3 and CaO. The lack of correlation for major elements, as well as the lack of observed fractional crystallization trends between these elements suggests that they were modified by metamorphism. The strong correlation of HFSE and REE reflects the original geochemical signal generated by magmatic processes. The correlation of the LILE is consistent with their elevated composition implying the influence of crustal contamination processes, and though some variability is likely superimposed due to metamorphism, the primary magmatic record is not completely destroyed. We conclude that the HFSE and REE are not influenced by metamorphic processes and therefore provide robust records of magmatic processes.