The aim of this study is to show the influence of oak admixtures in Scots pine stands on the properties of the surface humus accumulation horizons in forest soils formed of poor sandy parent material. In addition, differences in the floristic composition, shaping in pine stands of varying oak admixtures was analyzed. The study involved 30 plots which were located in the forest districts in the Polish lowlands. The selected areas were characterized by similar parent material. Three groups of study area (10 plots each) were specified: 1) group consisted of pine stands with no added species, 2) group consisted of pine with 10.20% share of oak, 3) group consisted of pine stands with single oak in the species composition. The positive impact of the admixture of oak in pine stands results in an increase in soil microbial activity. More favorable bio-physico-chemical properties of humus layers in stands supplemented with an admixture of oak are reflected in the greater abundance of forest undergrowth.
The aim of the study was to assess the effects of organic fertilization on selected chemical properties of the soil and the activity of dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase in the soil of forest nursery. The main goal was to evaluate the role of organic fertilizers in carbon storage in the forest nursery soil. Sample plots were located in northern Poland in the Polanów Forest District on a forest nursery. Soil samples were collected from horizon 0–20 cm for laboratory analyzes. In soil samples pH, soil texture, and organic carbon, nitrogen, base cation contents, dehydrogenase activity and β-glucosidase activity were determined. The obtained results were used to evaluate the carbon storage. The results confirm the beneficial effect of the applied organic fertilizer on chemical properties of the soils under study and their biological activity. The applied organic fertilizers had an impact on increased accumulation of soil organic matter. In the soils investigated, there was an increase in the activity of such enzymes as dehydrogenases and β-glucosidase.
The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase and urease) in trophically diverse Gleysols. Efforts to establish the relationship between enzymatic activity and physico-chemical properties of various subtypes of Gleysols were attempted. Dehydrogenase activity was best correlated with carbon content and acidity among the studied properties of soils. Urease activity was correlated with the reaction pf soil. Enzyme activity differentiates subtypes of Gleysols, which are characterized by a different type of soil humus. The dehydrogenase activity was higher in gleysols with peat or muck of swamp habitats. The opposite trend was found in the urease activity. The urease activity was the highest in the gleysols without organic matter. The studies showed that enzymatic activity is closely related to the type of accumulated organic matter and at the same time with species variety of plant communities..
The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase and urease) in trophically diverse Brunic Arenosols and Cambisols. Efforts to establish the relationship between enzymatic activity and physico-chemical properties of various subtypes of Brunic Arenosols and Cambisols were attempted. Another aim was to determine the effect of vegetation on the properties of soil surface levels. The study was conducted on 94 plots located in nature reserves and national parks in the Polish lowland area. Dehydrogenase activity and urease showed large variations in the subtypes of the distinguished Brunic Arenosols and Cambisols. Dehydrogenases and urease activity in surface layers of fresh humus of Cambisols and Brunic Arenosols was strongly associated with the plants. This is confirmed by the relationship between the enzymatic activity and the type of accumulated humus substances, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen and humus horizons reaction.
The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using biological and biochemical parameters in the evaluation of forest soil quality and changes caused by land use. The study attempted to determine a relationship between the enzymatic activity of soil, the number of earthworms and soil physico-chemical properties. The study was carried out in central Poland in adjoining Forest Districts (Przedbórz and Smardzewice). In soil samples taken from 12 research plots, basic physico-chemical properties, enzyme activity (dehydrogenase, urease) and density and biomass of earthworms were examined. Enzyme activity showed a large diversity within the forest site types studied. The correlations between the activity of the enzymes studied and C/N ratio indicated considerable importance of these enzymes in metabolism of essential elements of organic matter of forest soils. Urease and dehydrogenase activity and earthworm number showed susceptibility to soil pH, which confirmed relationships between enzyme activity and abundance of earthworms and soil pH in H2O and KCl.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different types of land use (forest, tillage and pasture) on soil properties, especially enzyme activity. Our investigation was carried out on 53 research plots with 11 plots in broadleaved forest stands, 12 plots in mixed broadleaved stands, 10 plots in mixed coniferous stands, 9 plots on tillage and 11 plots on pasture. The soil samples were collected from a depth of 0–15 cm after removing the organic horizon. Contents of organic carbon and nitrogen, pH and soil texture were investigated. Furthermore, dehydrogenase and urease activity were determined. Significant differences in the enzyme activity between forest and agricultural soils were observed, thus demonstrating that enzyme activity is influenced by the organic matter content of the soil. The highest enzyme activity was recorded in the forest soil within broadleaved stands, whilst the lowest activity was found in tillage soil, because tillage soil contained significantly less organic matter. High enzymatic activity of pasture soils is the combined result of vegetation type and the lack of plowing.
The article discusses the relationship between rendzinas and types of forest sites and plant communities in lowland, upland and mountain areas in Poland. Rendzinas as soils of forest sites play an important role in the uplands of southern Poland. In mountain areas, their preponderance is limited to the area of the Pieniny and the Western Tatras. The site-forming role of rendzinas in the upland areas depends mainly on geomorphological conditions. Typical rendzinas generally form eutrophic sites of multi-species oak-hornbeam forests, fertile beech forests and thermophilous beech forests. Rendzinas with lithological discontinuities usually create poorer form sites of mixed deciduous forests, which correspond to floristically poorer phytocenoses of acidophilous deciduous forests. In mountain areas, the climate and geomorphological processes form the zonation of vegetation and rendzinas. In vertical layout sites, the rendzinas change from fertile sites of fir and beech forests, through mesotrophic mixed forests sites, to spruce forest on limestone in the upper montane zone.
In this research study, enzyme activity was used to assess differences occurring in soils as a result of the different tree species influence. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and mixed-species stands on the enzymatic activity and chemical characteristics of soil. Sample plots were located in central Poland, in the Przedbórz forest district (51.09.59.50°N, 20.00.24.25°E). The test area was dominated by Brunic Arenosols. 15 research plots were established (5 plots under pine, 5 plots under oak and 5 plots under mixed-species stand). Soil samples from the O, A and AB horizons were taken. In soil samples pH, soil texture, and organic carbon, nitrogen, base cation contents, dehydrogenase activity and urease activity were determined. Tree species affected soil organic matter accumulation, pH and microbial activity. The highest enzyme activity was reported in the soils under oak and mixed-species stands. The soil pH was lower under pine forest than under oak and mixed-species stands. pHs is presumably a major factor affecting microbial community composition and enzyme dynamics. We noted a significant correlation between enzyme activity and C/N ratio which is often used to describe litter quality. A lower C/N ratio was found in oak and mixed-species stands compared with pine stands.
The objective of the study is the presentation of the chemical properties of forest chernozems and the features of forest habitats developed on chernozems in south-eastern Poland. The assessment of the trophic status of chernozems was presented based on the Trophic Soil Index (SIG). Moreover, the paper presents the diversity of forest vegetation on chernozems. The research covered 15 plots from the habitat inventory performed for the Mircze and Strzelce Forest Districts (SE Poland). Habitat conditions were characterised on the research plots, with particular consideration of the soil and vegetation. The analysed soils were featured by the presence of thick humus horizons and the occurrence of calcium carbonate. High SIG values confirm the eutrophic status of the analysed soils. In general, fresh and wet habitats of broadleaved forests (Lśw and Lw), as well as fresh habitats of broadleaved upland forest (Lwyżśw) develop on chernozems in Poland. They are associated with multi-species broadleaved tree stands. The conducted research indicates that, in current environmental conditions, the potential plant community is oak-hornbeam forest with predominance of oak, hornbeam, and abundant admixtures of other broadleaved species. High trophic status of the analysed chernozems is confirmed by high bonitation of tree stands and richness of forest floor vegetation.
The physical and chemical properties of soil are the basic features that are used in the assessment of mountain sites. The aim of this study was to produce a simple key for classifying forest sites in mountain areas using soil particle size distribution. 200 plots (standard typological space) were selected for examination, most of which are typical of the Carpathians - being dominated by flysch rock. A few plots were located in the Sudety and Tatra Mountains, which have a different surface geology, mostly metamorphic rock and granite. The study proved that soil properties (reaction, base saturation, content of base cations, organic carbon and nitrogen) are helpful in distinguishing and assigning soils to particular site types. The particle size distribution of forest mountain sites separated into different categories in terms of productivity. These results can be used to improve the classification of forest mountain sites.