The aim of this work was to assess knowledge of and to identify awareness in second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation, regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food. The analysis of obtained results shows that about 98% of respondents know the concept of GMO and highly appreciate their knowledge of this topic. The main source of knowledge about GMO for the students is the Internet and the University. It is worth noting that 59% of respondents are aware of the use of GMO in food, while more than half do not know how the GMO in food should be labeled. In particular, students of biotechnology showed a distinctive knowledge about GMO. Over half of students of the Jan Kochanowski University in the fields of biology, biotechnology, and tourism and recreation (55%) recognized that the use of GMO poses a threat to human health.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of application of small amounts of nitrogen to the soil together with foliar application of micronutrients on the content of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.). The study was based on a two-factor field experiment conducted in 2009–2011 on very good rye complex soil. Nitrogen was applied in the form of ammonium nitrate (34% N), and manganese and copper were applied to the leaves in the form of the fertilisers Adob Mn (1.5 l∙ha−1) and Adob Cu (1.0 l∙ha−1), respectively. The results indicated that the nitrogen fertilisation, the foliar application of micronutrients and the interaction of these factors significantly determined the contents of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain. The highest content of Cu and Mn in the material was obtained following the application of 50 kg N·ha−1, and an increase in nitrogen application (to 50 kg·ha−1) caused a decrease in the content of zinc in the grain. Foliar application of Cu, Mn and both elements together resulted in significant changes in the concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn in the plant material as compared to treatment without the application of micronutrients. The mineral fertilisers at the rates applied had a beneficial effect on the chemical composition of the grain, and thus on its quality, and this was achieved with substantially lower consumption of agrochemicals than that in the case of agrotechnical procedures for traditional cereals. It can, therefore, be concluded that this practice is environment friendly and can significantly reduce the negative impact of agricultural activity.
Sosnowsky’s hogweed was brought to Poland as a silage plant for cattle in the mid-20th century from the Caucasus. It was grown mainly in National Farms. However, the hogweed quickly spread across the natural environment. It is a highly invasive plant and possesses strong burning qualities. Every year many people suffer from its burns. The hogweed is also dangerous for animals. Being an invasive species, it displaces natural plant species of the native flora. It can threaten the flora and landscape of a particular area. The aim of the article is to present the problem including the frequency of occurrence of Sosnowsky’s hogweed in Poland, to show the negative effects for human health and the methods to fight it in its habitat.
The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO) amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.
The scope of problems undertaken was elaborated based on the survey conducted in a group of 500 adolescents from the Lublin Region completing secondary schools, including 250 adolescents attending General Secondary Schools and 250 adolescents attending Agricultural Secondary Technical Schools. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey, using a questionnaire.
The study showed that the majority of adolescents completing secondary schools were not interested at all in the scope of problems concerning GMO. A large part of the respondents (more than 2/5) had a very low level of knowledge of this problem. The greatest differences in the level of knowledge about GMO were observed in subgroups divided according to the type of school attended by the adolescents (General or Agricultural Technical). Respondents who attended General Secondary Schools showed a better knowledge of theoretical problems, whereas those who attended Secondary Agricultural Technical Schools were better familiarised with practical issues.
The aim of the study was to demonstrate the degree of healthiness of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) acorns found in the Włoszczowa-Jędrzejów Nature Park (abbreviation: W-JOChK) and in the neighbouring area. It was dealt with by making the analysis of health of the acorns (total 3,600). The research material included the samples of fallen down acorns, collected under the pedunculate oaks in Kurzelów (W-JOChK), as well as Żelisławice. The study was conducted from late September 2014 to early October 2015.
The analysis of acorns demonstrated that over 50% of the acorns were damaged by insects. The ‘perpetrators’ of the damage proved to be Curculio glandium (Coleoptera: Curculionidae - acorn weevil) and Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae - chestnut tortrix). It was stated that acorns from the pedunculate oak trees, which were found on the protected area, were twice less frequently inhabited by Curculio glandium than those originating from the trees in Żelisławice - near the industrial firm. The damages caused by Cydia splendana in both study sites were similar in number. The results indicate that the acorns of oaks in more polluted environment are probably more vulnerable to infestation by insects.
In Poland, in recent years, there has been a great interest in growing spelt wheat. This is dictated not only by an increasing demand for food with higher healthy properties and unique taste, but also by a possibility of attracting farmers’ attention to this cereal as an alternative crop, with smaller requirements regarding the use of fertilization, as compared with common wheat. The aim of this study was to carry out the assessment of value of some technological characters of grain and flour of spelt wheat depending on different fertilizations with nitrogen (I factor, n=3, 25 and 50 kg N∙ha−1 + control treatment) and foliar application of microelements (II factor, n=4, Mn, Cu, combined fertilization with Mn and Cu + control treatment). Based on the performed study, it was found that fertilization with nitrogen, microelements and their interaction had, on average for years, a significant effect on the values of technological characters. Introduction of 25 kg N·ha−1 caused an increase in the value of falling number, whereas total protein content, wet gluten content and sedimentation value increased as a result of increasing nitrogen rates up to a level of 50 kg·ha−1. Of the variants of fertilization with microelements, the highest values of the analysed baking indices were found in the effects of combined foliar application of copper and manganese.
The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of environmental conditions (biofortification with Mg) and technological processes (freezing, preserving in jars and drying) on the content of nitrates (III) in carrot. Besides this, the amount of human intake of nitrates (III) found in the carrot products analysed was assayed. The effect on environment resulting from the changes in carrot growing technology was not so unambiguous as for nitrates (V) since most NO2¯ was contained in, for example, processed foods from non-biofortified Mg material. The consumption of products was not hazardous to the consumer since it did not exceed Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) NO2¯. Most nitrates (III) are consumed with dried carrot and least - with carrot preserved in jars. For this reason, one should run a thorough monitoring of the contents of nitrates (III), toxic to humans since new products based on dried carrot material, such as crisps, are launched in the consumer market.
The authors examine a very important issue concerning the concept of public consciousness and ecological consciousness of a human. They present ecological consciousness through indicating its level and factors that determine it. They discuss questions connected to shaping ecological consciousness in teachings of Saint John Paul II, sustainable development, eco-philosophy, and pro-ecological attitudes.
The study was focused on determining the sites of amphibian and reptile occurrence in the Pieprzowe Mountains Nature Reserve (area 18.01 ha) and adjacent areas (total area 58.81 ha). The investigations also involved the biology of breeding in the selected species, as well as determining threats and protection measures.
Situated in the eastern part of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, the steppe-like Pieprzowe (Pepper) Mountains Nature Reserve was established in 1979. Its aim is to protect xerothermic assemblages inhabited by many species of rare plants including the largest European aggregation of roses growing wild. The area is located on a steep, sometimes rugged escarpment, which is part of the Vistula River erosional margin. The escarpment exposes Cambrian black pepper-like shales. The slope base is overgrown by a narrow belt of willow thickets. Above occur assemblages of xerothermic thickets with a few trees. The highest parts of the nature reserve are overgrown with xerothermic grasslands with the prevalence of feathergrass steppe (Festuco-Stipion class). The reserve is surrounded by riparian forests, waterlogged meadows and reservoirs of the Vistula former riverbed, the largest of which is an oxbow lake (5.16 ha).
The following species were documented in 2016-2017: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Laur., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. The studies were focused on biology of breeding and phenology in common toad and common frog.
The main threats posed on herpetofauna include: human presence, littering, fire raising and changes of water balance.