In the recent years, industrial automatics practically was used in all domains of economy. Particularly, it concerns to manufacturing processes and technological processes. It seems that in these systems, very important meaning have measuring and control devices, installed practically in all production machines. Operational parameters of machines, registered by these systems are the kind of source of very important information, which not always are utilized in proper way by the users. Particularly, it concerns mining branch, where more technically advanced machines are used. However, not always their users utilize the big potential of these machines. For this reason, in the paper there are presented results of studies, enabling the application of industrial automatic systems to analyze operation states of machines, based on registered parameters of these machines. Longwall shearer was submitted to detailed analysis as the most important machine in mining exploitation process. There are presented proposals for application registered data for determine effectiveness of its utilization and to diagnose its technical condition. Presented paper is aimed to realize and encouraging users to wider practical use of the capabilities of industrial automation systems. This should improve efficiency and safety of production processes.
Unscheduled downtimes in machine operation are one of the main reasons behind their low availability. Such downtimes are caused by miscellaneous factors and remain difficult to identify in a number of cases. This particularly refers to enterprises that conduct their activities in changing external conditions, such as hard coal mines, where exploitation is carried out in extremely complicated, changeable and dangerous conditions. The process of coal production makes use of various machines that must be adapted to these conditions. The specificity of the working environment makes it necessary for these machines to exhibit high reliability, readiness and efficiency. These features, in turn, make the cost of the machines very high. It is therefore reasonable to make the best use of their capabilities, which translates into the effectiveness of the entire production process. The article concentrates on determining the availability of these machines. It has been assumed that availability is one of the fundamental parameters that define the effective utilisation of machines. The tests were conducted for a longwall shearer as well as an armoured face conveyor and a main haulage conveyor in one of the hard coal mines in Poland. Industrial automation systems were used to determine unscheduled downtimes in the operation of these machines, as well as their time structure and causes. The results obtained indicate that the number of unscheduled downtimes represents a serious problem in mining exploitation.
Yielding support, commonly applied to secure dog headings, is made of carrying elements in the form of steel frames and friction props. Yielding capacity of this support is realized in frictional joints, which due to their geometry can be divided to straight and arch joints. Occurring in steel frames arch frictional joints are characterized with more complex loading state than straight joints used in friction props. In the article, there is presented an analysis of the state of stress and deformation of the arch frictional joint, which was carried out on the model of these joints using finite element method. The scope of the analysis included two methods of loading of arch frictional joint, namely its axial compression and bending. In both cases, joints were loaded dynamically with the impact of freely falling mass. Arch joints with and without passive pressure were submitted to an axial compression. Physical model of the frictional joint was developed on the basis of a system applied during the stand tests. To solve mathematical model an explicit integration method was used. As a result of analyses carried out, temporal courses of force transmitted through the frictional joint, and displacements of section sliding down were determined. On the basis of the temporal courses, dependences between maximum value of force transmitted through the frictional joint and the height from which the impact mass falls down were determined. Distributions of reduced stresses in elements of frictional joint were also determined and the state of deformation was described. In order to emphasize the difference between straight and arch frictional joints, also an analysis of internal forces in arch frictional joint depending on its geometrical parameters without and with passive pressure was presented.
Mining machines suitable for hard coal mining, due to the specifics of this industry must be characterized by very high technical parameters. In particular, it concerns their durability, reliability and availability. Currently used machines approved for operation in underground conditions meet such requirements. Nevertheless, during their operation it is reasonable to conduct supervision and control of work parameters. This applies to both machine manufacturers and users, which is especially important in the event of a failure. Mine employees should be able control of the entire operation process. This control can be effective thanks to a visualization system developed to monitor the working parameters of mining systems. The paper discusses the innovative system and presents the results of efficiency tests. They concerned the visualization of the operation of a powered roof support. The obtained results indicate that the assumed goal of the system has been achieved. The system is built on elements of industrial automation, which guarantees the reliability of the indicated values. Its graphic layout and selection of the presented parameters are also approved. It should also be emphasized that the system can work with currently operating systems and is easy to expand. According to the Authors, the system should find a wide application in practice.
The article presents the results of tests and analyses of control functions performed by a powered roof support which is the basic part of a powered longwall system. The research was based on an innovative registration and measurement system dedicated to this specific range of tests. The basic element of this system is a virtual driver. It is equipped with input and output systems to connect standard physical voltage signals. The tests were carried out on a prototype powered roof support type ZPR- 15/35-POz. The presented research methodology and obtained results are an element of new research methods developed for powered support based on virtual controllers. The applied solution generates less costs than the devices currently used, while its functionality is significantly greater. The system developed by the Authors supports innovative and, to a certain extent, intelligent IT solutions for testing control elements. This developed system is suitable to be applied in a wide range of research such as diagnosis of mining machinery control elements and other industries in the near future.
The article is a review of completed research on developed and implemented innovative and technologically advanced technical systems. According to the Industry 4.0 concept they can have a significant impact on the efficiency of production processes and product development. In this perspective, the key aspect seems to be maintenance management of technical systems, realized both in the operate phase as well as during service and repair works. There were discussed research results of authors and developed application solutions supporting decision-making processes, in terms of three main periods of realization of exploitation processes: short, medium and long-term.
Dustiness of the mine atmosphere during carrying out exploitation is one of the most hazardous factors threaten to health and life of employees. Also it is large hazard for all type of mechanical and electrical devices operating in mining headings. Coal dust is also very dangerous due to its possibility of explosion. Currently applied technologies of rock mass mining process, entire transport process of output and applied ventilation system cause that rock and coal dust is presented practically in each of the mining heading. Practically, is impossible to eliminate dust from mining headings. However, one can determine its parameters and potential ways its displacement. In the paper there is presented modeling research methodology of dustiness state in a driven dog heading. Developed model is the basis for this methodology, including the diphase flow of mixture of air and dust in the mining heading. Analysis was performed for real driven dog heading. Based on performed analyses, distributions of particular fraction and movement trajectories of selected dust grains were determined. Developed methodology gives a lot of opportunities for analysis of dustiness state in mining headings and in other compartments. It enables to determine parameters of particular grains and their impact on ventilation parameters of the air stream in the tested headings. Obtained results can also be used to reduce dust hazard.
The article presents the results of literature research in the field of Technology Assessment (TA). In particular, the attention was focused on searching for trends determining the directions of development of this research area. Research gaps constituting the basis for undertaking new cognitive challenges were identified. As a research method, a systematic review of literature was adopted, the methodology of which was described in the first part of the article. The analysis includes a total of 1788 TA-related scientific articles available in Google Scholar and BazTech databases. The practical part of the article presents fragments of literature research and an attempt to define the concepts of Technology Assessment on their basis. The collected research material showed a high degree of variation in the scope of definitions and the research area covered by TA. This indicates the need to conduct further research in this area for the purpose of clarifying the research area which TA deals with. It is legitimate to say that the development of research in this area is necessary due to the increasing impact of technology on society.
Augmented reality technology (AR), also known as mixed reality, allows to enhance the seen reality with additional, virtual objects, displayed right in front of the user’s eyes. The article presents the concept of using Augmented Reality glasses, to support the user with pre-defined knowledge and instructions, giving the ability to do the job without almost any idea of what should be done. The operator simply follows the instructions shown in front of the eyes and communicate with the system with simple gesture and voice. Additionally, the article touches the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI) which will allow the system in the future to have not only the pre-defined, hard coded instructions, but also the flexibility to give different hints to the user based on a different situation observed.
Endogenous fires are currently one of the most common threats in hard coal mines. They are very dangerous for the staff and can cause very large economical loses. Therefore, the scope of activities aimed at limiting the possibility of these fires and reduction of their consequences constantly broadens. The paper presents the results of research aimed at determining the efficiency of the ventilation system applied to reduce the risk of endogenous fires in the areas where inert gases are used. The calculations included carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Inertisation is one of the ways of combating endogenous fires. This method is included in the developed comprehensive method to reduce the possibility of these fires. The results obtained and the method developed and later applied, should have a significant impact on improving the safety of operations in the scope of occurrence and consequences of endogenous fires.