The aim of this study was to determine the effect of SYM 2206 (a potent non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist) on the threshold for maximal electroshock (MEST)-induced seizures in mice. Electroconvulsions were produced in mice by means of a current (sinewave, 50 Hz, maximum 500 V, strength from 4 to 14 mA, 0.2-s stimulus duration, tonic hind limb extension taken as the endpoint) delivered via ear-clip electrodes. SYM 2206 administered systemically (i.p.), 30 min before the MEST test, at doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, did not alter the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions in mice. In contrast, SYM 2206 at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions in mice (P<0.01 and P<0.001). Linear regression analysis of SYM 2206 doses and their corresponding threshold increases allowed for the determination of threshold increasing doses by 20% and 50% (TID20 and TID50 values) that elevate the threshold in drug-treated animals over the threshold in control animals. The experimentally derived TID20 and TID50 values for SYM 2206 were 4.25 and 10.56 mg/kg, respectively. SYM 2206 dose-dependently increased the threshold for MEST-induced seizures, suggesting the anticonvulsant action of the compound in this seizure model in mice.
The aim of this work was to assess knowledge of and to identify awareness in second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation, regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food. The analysis of obtained results shows that about 98% of respondents know the concept of GMO and highly appreciate their knowledge of this topic. The main source of knowledge about GMO for the students is the Internet and the University. It is worth noting that 59% of respondents are aware of the use of GMO in food, while more than half do not know how the GMO in food should be labeled. In particular, students of biotechnology showed a distinctive knowledge about GMO. Over half of students of the Jan Kochanowski University in the fields of biology, biotechnology, and tourism and recreation (55%) recognized that the use of GMO poses a threat to human health.
This study was aimed at characterizing the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with gabapentin, in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Herein, psychomotor seizures were evoked in male albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3 s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the anticonvulsant interactions between the drugs in combination, for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. The type II isobolographic analysis revealed that the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 were supra-additive (synergistic; P<0.05) in terms of seizure suppression, while the combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were additive in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. We conclude that, as the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interaction in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model, this may be considered as particularly favorable combinations in further clinical practice.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of N-(m-bromoanilinomethyl)- p-isopropoxyphenylsuccinimide (BAM-IPPS - a new succinimide derivative) on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: carbamazepine [CBZ], phenobarbital [PB], phenytoin [PHT] and valproate [VPA]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced tonic seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via ear-clip electrodes. BAM-IPPS administered (i.p.) at a dose of 150 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice (P<0.05). Lower doses of BAM-IPPS (50 and 100 mg/kg) had no significant impact on the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. Moreover, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg) did not significantly affect the anticonvulsant potency of CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA in the mouse MES model. BAM-IPPS elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice in a dosedependent manner. However, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg) did not affect the anticonvulsant action of various classical AEDs in the mouse MES model, making the combinations of BAM-IPPS with CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA neutral, from a preclinical point of view.