Janusz Typek, Nikos Guskos, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Aleksander Guskos, Kielbasa Karolina, Rafal Pelka and Walerian Arabczyk
Samples obtained by nitriding of promoted nanocrystalline iron and the nitrides reduction at various nitriding potential in terms of thermodynamic parameters were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance/ferromagnetic resonance (EPR/FMR) method at room temperature. Experimental FMR spectra were fitted by the Dysonian-type resonance lines arising from the presence of different Fe–N phases. The obtained FMR parameters allowed us to identify the component phases and to determine their magnetic properties. In general, the proposed simple method of decomposition of the FMR spectra produced results on the phase content in investigated samples that were consistent with XRD measurements and additionally, magnetic characteristics of the studied nanomagnets.
Janusz Typek, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Rafal Pelka, Karolina Kielbasa, Walerian Arabczyk and Nikos Guskos
Nanocrystalline iron was obtained by fusing magnetite and promoters. The oxidized form was reduced with hydrogen and passivated (sample P0). The average nanocrystallite size in sample P0 was d(P0) =16 nm and the width of size distribution was σ(P0) = 18 nm. Samples of nanocrystalline iron with narrower diameter ranges and larger and smaller average crystallite sizes were also synthesized. They were: sample P1 (d(P1) = 28 nm, σ(P1) = 5 nm), sample P2 (d(P2) = 22 nm, σ(P1) = 5 nm), sample P3 (d(P3) = 12 nm, σ(P1) = 9 nm). These four samples were studied at room temperature by dc magnetization measurements and ferromagnetic resonance at microwave frequency. Correlations between samples sizes distributions (average size and width of the sizes) and magnetic parameters (effective magnetization, anisotropy field, anisotropy constant, FMR linewidth) were investigated. It was found that the anisotropy field and effective magnetization determined from FMR spectra scale linearly with nanoparticle sizes, while the effective magnetic anisotropy constant determined from the hysteresis loops decreases with nanoparticle size increase.
Niko Guskos, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Janusz Typek, Malwina Pilarska, Constantinos Aidinis and Anna Blonska-Tabero
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn) compounds in high temperature range (293 K to 493 K) have been investigated. The role of magnetic (Cu, Mn) and non-magnetic (Zn, Mg) ions in M3Fe4V6O24 structure in formation of magnetic resonance spectra was studied. Temperature dependence of EPR parameters: resonance field, linewidth and integrated intensity were examined. Similarities and differences in temperature behavior of these parameters has been discussed in terms of different relaxation mechanisms and magnetic interactions in the spin systems. An important role of additional magnetic ions (M = Mn or Cu) in the M3Fe4V6O24 structure has been identified and its consequences considered.
Joanna Grzechulska-Damszel, Agata Markowska-Szczupak, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Janusz Typek, Nikos Guskos and Antoni W. Morawski
The iron diet supplements: AproFER 1000 and AproTHEM were subjected to various chemical, microbial and magnetic analysis. The microbial analysis revealed no presence of pathogenic bacteria in the studied products. No significant changes in iron content or forms (bivalent/trivalent) were observed in EPR analysis of supplements stored at different conditions for a long period of time. The chemical and magnetic analysis showed that both AproFER 1000 and AproTHEM contain a high concentration of bivalent iron so they can be used as an iron diet supplements.
Janusz Typek, Kamil Wardal, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Anna Szymczyk, Nikos Guskos, Urszula Narkiewicz and Elzbieta Piesowicz
Magnetic properties of 0.7(Fe2O3)/0.3(ZnO) nanocomposite synthesized by traditional wet chemistry method and containing only two phases: ZnO (nonmagnetic) and ZnFe2O4 (magnetic, with nanocrystallites of average size 12 nm, but forming large agglomerates, up to 100 nm in size) were studied by DC magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The investigated nanocomposite was either in a form of nanopowder or dispersed at concentration of 0.1 wt.% in poly(ethylene naphthalate-block-tetramethylene oxide) PTMO-b-PEN polymer matrix. Similarities and differences in magnetic behavior of these two samples revealed by the study of static magnetization and FMR spectra have been discussed relative to different morphologies and the associated variation of interparticle interactions. Moreover, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability of the nanocomposite and the neat polymer have been studied by thermogravimetric method.
Niko Guskos, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Aleksander Guskos, Janusz Typek, Pawel Berczynski, Diana Dolat, Sylwia Mozia, Constantinos Aidinis and Antoni W. Morawski
Three nCo,N-TiO2 nanocomposites (where cobalt concentration index n = 1, 5 and 10 wt %) were prepared and investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy at room temperature. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) lines of magnetic cobalt agglomerated nanoparticle were dominant in all registered spectra. The relaxation processes and magnetic anisotropy of the investigated spin system essentially depended on the concentration of cobalt ions. It is suggested that the samples contained two magnetic types of sublattices forming a strongly correlated spin system. It is suggested that the existence of strongly correlated magnetic system has an essential influence of the photocatalytic properties of the studied nanocomposites.
Nikos Guskos, Janusz Typek, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Aleksander Guskos, Pawel Berczynski, Diana Dolat, Sylwia Mozia, Konstantinos Aidinis, Konrad Kruk and Antoni W. Morawski
The (nCo,N)-TiO2 (n = 1, 5 and 10 wt.% of Co) nanocomposites were investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 4 K to 290 K range. Analyses of ferromagnetic/electron paramagnetic resonance (FMR/EPR) spectra in terms of four Callen lineshape components revealed the existence of two types of magnetic centers, one derived from metallic cobalt nanoparticles in superparamagnetic (SPM) phase and the other from cobalt clusters in the TiO2 lattice. Additionally, at low temperature the EPR spectrum arising from Ti3+ ions was also registered. Both relaxations of the Landau-Lifshitz type and the Bloch-Bloembergen type played an important role at high temperature in determining the linewidths and the latter relaxation was prevailing at low temperature. Analysis of the integrated intensity showed that the SPM signal is due to small size FM cobalt nanoparticles while the paramagnetic signal from Co clusters originates from those nanoparticles in which the concentration of magnetic polarons is below the percolation threshold.