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  • Author: Janusz Marchwiński x
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Abstract

Sozology is a newly discovered direction in urban planning stem from the growing threats to the natural environment. A contemporary man pursues close and positive relations with the environment and focuses on the premises of human ecology that directly impact the process of planning and composing urban spaces. The article presents the influence of climatic conditions on the shaping of housing areas. The problem was presented on the basis of an analysis of a specific example. The assessment included the shading of the buildings by neighbouring buildings, the shading of the common spaces and the issue of ventilation. These phenomena connected with the structure of the buildings, their scale and intensity have a significant impact on the conditions of the residence. Other factors also affect the housing environment. Their rational use with the help of teams of experts from complementary fields can contribute to raising the standards of the housing environment even at the planning stage, and later to optimising land use by the community of its inhabitants.

Abstract

The following article is intended to discuss the issues concerning the introduction of passive measures aimed at improving solar protection in multi-family buildings. A system of classifying these methods into two groups of solutions (architectural and material-building) was applied. The first group includes issues concerning facade design, the spatial features of which (such as loggias, balconies and other overhangs) can be treated as one of the solar protection methods. The authors’ own studies are presented and expressed in a sequence of formulas. The formulas enable assessment of the effectiveness of the above elements, depending on external conditions. As far as the second group is concerned, material-construction solutions for building facades and roofs are discussed. The solutions mentioned include solar-control glazing, spatial shading elements (such as venetian blinds, roller blinds), roof and façade vegetation, and the thermal mass of the building. The essence of the functioning of the analysed solutions in relation to the characteristic functional specificity of multi-family buildings is discussed. Problematic areas of application of the above methods are indicated. As shown in the study, problematic areas may include a group of utilitarian-operating, economic and aesthetic issues, in the case of which the use of passive solutions encounters limitations. In conclusion, the possibilities for alleviating these limitations are highlighted. The authors’ own solutions presented in the following paper can contribute to energy savings and may thus prove beneficial for environmental reasons, thereby serving the aims of sustainable development.