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Open access

Janusz Jaworski and Eligiusz Madejski

Importance of Urban Factor and Selected Socio-Economic Variables in the Differentiation of Coordination Motor Abilities Level (CMA)

Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the urban factor and socio-economic status on selected coordination motor abilities of non-practicing physical education female students. Material and methods. The research covered 83 female students aged 20.6±0.8 SD years. Data on place of residence and socio-economic status of respondents were collected through a survey. The study of coordination motor abilities was carried out by a special computer application using for this purpose a "tablet" with touch screen. Assessment of the size, scope and direction of differentiation between the groups was made on the basis of standardized inter-group differences. Results. The inter-group differences were presented in the surveyed female students' coordination motor abilities, depending on the urban factor and socio-economic status. The gradient of these changes was as follows: the city over 25 thousand population > city of 25 thousand population > small town. The scale of differentiation was dependent on the type of tested abilities and the environmental factor. Conclusion. Gradient of observed changes could be caused by, e.g. more environmental stimuli stimulating the nervous system in the earlier periods of development of the female students from larger urban clusters and families with higher socio-economic status.

Open access

Janusz Jaworski and Michał Żak

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the structure of morpho-functional models that determine the level of sports performance in three consecutive stages of training of young badminton players. In the course of the study, 3 groups of young badminton players were examined: 40 preadolescents aged 11–13, 32 adolescents aged 14–16, and 24 adolescents aged 17–19. The scope of the study involved basic anthropometric measurements, computer tests analysing motor coordination abilities, motor skills encompassing speed, muscular power and strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Results of the study indicate that the structure of morpho-functional models varies at different stages of sports training. Sets of variables determining sports performance create characteristic complexes of variables that do not constitute permanent models. The dominance of somatic features and coordination abilities in the early stages of badminton training changes for the benefit of speed and strength abilities.

Open access

Dariusz Tchórzewski, Janusz Jaworski and Przemysław Bujas

Influence of Long-Lasting Balancing on Unstable Surface on Changes in Balance

Purpose. The goal of this thesis is to test the qualification of changes in balance as the effect of long-lasting balancing on a movable platform alternately in sagittal and frontal planes. It was expected to find answers to the following problems: 1. Does the effort caused by a 10-minute balancing in the given planes and in the given pattern have an influence on dynamic balance parameters? 2. Till which moment are the subjects able to improve their balancing skills in the given planes? 3. Do the possible changes progress in the same way in both planes considered? Basic procedures. 28 men aged between 24.3 and 33.8 years took part in this test. Average age of the subjects was 25.2 years. The tests were made on EasyTech Balance Platform. Tests consisted of a trial of balancing in a standing position with feet placed parallel on the platform. The subjects' task was to operate the platform through the right feet pressure to make the same sinusoid line as the pattern was. A ten-minute trial was made alternately in the sagittal and frontal planes. Individual dynamic parameters were recorded each minute of the test. Main findings. Significant improvement was noted in the first three minutes of the test. Between the 4th and 7th minutes parameters were relatively stable. The best results were recorded in the 8th minute of the test and this level was kept till the end of the trial. The character of the observed changes was analogous in the case of both planes. Conclusions. There was a statistically significant improvement in the dynamic body's stability noted in both planes in the test. Best results were recorded in the 8th minute of the test. The test used in the trial was long enough to establish the borderline between motor learning and the beginning of tiredness. The higher level of stability in the sagittal plane was affirmed in all successive minutes of the trials made.

Open access

Janusz Jaworski, Dariusz Tchórzewski and Przemysław Bujas

Involution of Simple and Complex Reaction Times Among People Aged Between 21 and 80 - The Results of Computer Tests

Purpose. The aim of this case study is to define the involution of simple and complex reaction times in groups of adult men and women. Basic procedure. The tests were carried out during the years 2007-2008 among 128 men and 136 women aged between 21 and 80. Those examined were divided into three groups according to their calendar age. In order to define the meaning of differences of the analyzed reaction time between the results of the three age groups, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method for independent attempts was used. Additionally, normalized differences between the groups as well as indices of sexual dimorphism were defined. Main findings. Among both men and women, gradual deterioration of reaction time performance with age can be observed. The scale of normalized differences shows that the most distinct differences are noticed between the first and the third group. They amount up to 1.3 of the standard deviation in men and up to 1.7 in women. Conclusions. The results derived from the following study confirm a long period of relative stabilization for all simple and complex reaction times among both genders. Significant involution of reaction times can be observed for all analyzed features only after the age of 55. Indices of sexual dimorphism indicate that men gain better results in all age groups. Indices of sexual dimorphism diminish with age.

Open access

Grzegorz Lech, Janusz Jaworski, Vladimir Lyakh and Robert Krawczyk

Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects' competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions.

The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time.

Open access

Stanisław Sterkowicz and Janusz Jaworski

Abstract

Purpose. The present study attempted to determine the effect of the number of hours spent playing computer games per week on somatic characteristics and the performance of selected coordination motor abilities. Methods. Ninety-seven prepubertal boys from rural areas of southern Poland were recruited. Selected coordination motor abilities were assessed by use of computer tests and a questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of time spent playing computer games. Basic somatic characteristics such as body height, body mass, body fat percentage (%PF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Descriptive statistics were calculated mean and standard deviation ( , sd) for the studied coordination abilities and somatic characteristics. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was employed to determine the differentiation between the results of the studied variables depending on the mean numbers of hours spent playing computer games per week. Results. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the results and the number of hours spent playing games, specifically for kinesthetic differentiation, spatial orientation, and the speed, accuracy, and precision of movements (in the number of committed errors). The lowest somatic characteristics including BMI was observed in the group of boys who spent the least amount of time playing computer games. Conclusions. It was found playing computer games 8 to 11 hours a week positively affected coordination motor ability, although individuals who played more than this amount of computer games had a higher incidence to be overweight or obese.

Open access

Leszek Jaworski, Anna Swiatek, Ryszard Zdunek and Janusz Zielinski

Integration of the ASG-EUPOS Permanent Stations with First Order National Geodetic Networks - Measurements and Results

The ASG-EUPOS network - the active geodetic network was established in Poland in 2008. The 2010/2011 campaign was the second one managed to integrate the ASG-EUPOS network with the first order national geodetic networks in Poland. As the result the station coordinates were determined in the uniform coordinate frame. The paper describes the measurements carried out for data acquisition as well as the data processing method. The results present analyses of differences between selected variants of solutions and show some problems encountered during the calculation.

Open access

Janusz Jaworski and Michał Żak

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate somatic and functional determinants of sports skill level in badminton players at three consecutive stages of training. Methods. The study examined 96 badminton players aged 11 to 19 years. The scope of the study included somatic characteristics, physical abilities and neurosensory abilities. Thirty nine variables were analysed in each athlete. Coefficients of multiple determination were used to evaluate the effect of structural and functional parameters on sports skill level in badminton players. Results. In the group of younger cadets, quality and effectiveness of playing were mostly determined by the level of physical abilities. In the group of cadets, the most important determinants were physical abilities, followed by somatic characteristics. In this group, coordination abilities were also important. In juniors, the most pronounced was a set of the variables that reflect physical abilities. Conclusions. Models of determination of sports skill level are most noticeable in the group of cadets. In all three groups of badminton players, the dominant effect on the quality of playing is due to a set of the variables that determine physical abilities.

Open access

Janusz Jaworski, Grażyna Kosiba and Eligiusz Madejski

Abstract

Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine the level and rate of change of reaction time during the developmental period from early childhood to early adulthood. Polynomial regression analysis was applied to determine the age at which the best reaction time results are achieved. Methods. The study involved 550 females between the ages of 7 and 20 years. Participants completed a computer test measuring simple reaction times to visual and auditory stimuli and choice reaction time during the ontogenetic developmental period. Results. Analysis of the results for age group distinguished two sub-periods of reaction time dynamics: a progressive increase throughout the developmental period followed by a plateau phase. This was evident for all reaction time measures (simple and choice) particularly in the case of that data collected empirically. Conclusions. best reaction times to visual and auditory stimuli were approximately at the age of 17 years. In turn, quickest choice reaction time was approximately one year earlier in life. The most dynamic increase in the results of both simple reaction times was between the age of 7 and 8 years, whereas for choice reaction time this was between 10 and 11 years of age.

Open access

Janusz Jaworski, Eligiusz Madejski, Grażyna Kosiba and Sylwia Wiatr

Abstract

Introduction.The aim of the study was to determine the age, level of achieving maximum results and growth of reaction time dynamics. Materials and methods. The study included 567 males of age between 7 and 22 years. Study materials included the results of simple reaction time and complex reaction time during progressive period. Conclusions. Progressive period of results' development lasts until the age of about 17-17.5, then stabilization of the analyzed results was observe. The most dynamic growth of all types of reaction time was observed in the analyzed 7 and 8-year-old boys.