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Open access

Urszula Żurek and Janusz Danek

Foal Rejection - Characteristics and Therapy of Inadequate Maternal Behaviour in Mares

The bond between the mare and her newborn foal is usually a strong one. However, some factors can lead to aberrations of maternal behaviour. Failure to protect and nurse the foal is defined as foal rejection. With a long period of gestation and increasingly high value of foals, foal rejection causes severe losses to breeders. Horse owners and breeders should have knowledge of risk factors, types, prevention rules and treatment of inadequate maternal behaviour. In the case of foal rejection it is important to use fostering techniques in raising such foals.

Open access

Janusz Danek and Urszula Żurek

Abstract

gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides are complex glycolipids composed of lipid A, a core polysaccharide, and repeating units of O-specific polysaccharides. Lipid A is associated with the majority of toxic effects of gram-negative bacteria. It interacts with target cells, such as macrophages and activated neutrophils, initiating the inflammatory cascade. The effects of LPS depend mostly on organism reaction to endotoxins, their concentration in blood and also on the state of the animal before the occurrence of endotoxemia. The effect of endotoxin on the reproductive functions of domestic animals has been partly elucidated. This paper presents data on clinical, hematological and biochemical changes in endotoxemia as well as effects of injection of endotoxin in the reproductive systems in boars, rams, and stallions. The results show that these males respond to endotoxins in a similar way, concerning clinical symptoms, body temperature and leukocyte count in blood. Endocrine and seminal changes are different and the range of these changes also depends on the dose and endotoxin exposure time.

Open access

Wiesław Krumrych and Janusz Danek

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxygen metabolism of neutrophils in peripheral blood of mares in relation to intensity of endometrium inflammations. The study involved 36 half-breed mares, aged 4-22 years, showing fertility disturbances. In 26 mares neutrophils were found in uteral smears, which indicated endometritis (15 - moderate inflammation and 11 - severe inflammation). In the rest mares, cytological examination excluded inflammation. Blood samples were evaluated in terms of neutrophils chemiluminescence without stimulation (CL-WS) and with stimulation by opsonised zymosan (CL-OZ). The study demonstrated (only in case of CL-WS) an increase in chemiluminescence of cells in mares with a severe inflammation of the endometrium. The increased chemiluminescence activity was accompanied by a decrease in activation index (OZ/WS) of neutrophils, suggesting some imbalance between production and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The correlation analysis demonstrated a statistically significant relation between the intensity of the uterus inflammation, which was verified by cytological examination and CL-WS of peripheral blood neutrophils, as well as their activation index. The obtained results suggest that activated neutrophils are an important source of ROS which can play a role in the pathogenesis of endometritis in mares.