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Janusz Ćwiklak

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present findings of simulation research of a stork impact with a helicopter windshield. Besides we developed a numerical model of the stork, based on biometrical data, taking into account various properties of its head, neck, torso and wings. It appears that the research findings which take into consideration the bird’s shape differ from those using a simplified bird model in the shape of a cylinder or a sphere. In order to conduct an analysis of a bird impact onto an aircraft windshield, we used the LS_DYNA software package. In the classic variant with the 3.6 kg bird model, cylinder-shaped with spherical endings, the windshield became damaged at the velocity of 200 km/h for a standard windshield (3.81 mm). For the same velocity, we conducted simulation which used the multimaterial model. It appeared that the windshield did not become damaged. Therefore, the shape of the dummy bird also affects the velocity at which the damage occurs. Too wide simplification of the dummy bird shape may lead to lowered values of the velocity.

Open access

Janusz Ćwiklak and Henryk Jafernik

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of bird strikes, that occurred in Polish Air Force. Data of Polish Air Force were used to analysis. Mentioned analysis concern such problems as time of day, height, kind of flight operation, severity of bird strikes. It is considered, that the results of researches can be used to determine bird strikes hazard and elaborate SMS in the context of bird strikes for military air bases.

Open access

Henryk Jafernik, Janusz Ćwiklak, Kamil Krasuski and Jarosław Kozuba

Abstract

Single Point Positioning (SPP) method is widely used in air, marine, and land navigation to determine the user’s position in real time and post factum. A typical accuracy for this method of determining the user’s position in the static mode is approximately 10 meters. In air operations, the SPP method accuracy can be several times lower and that may cause problems with precise positioning of an aircraft. The authors of this article presented preliminary results of research concerning aircraft positioning in the kinematic mode based on GPS observations. For this purpose, an in-flight experiment, in which a Cessna 172 aircraft was used, was performed at the airport in Mielec, Poland. The aircraft was equipped with a dual-frequency Topcon TPS HiperPro receiver, which was recording satellite observations with 1-second interval. The aircraft position was determined using the least-squares method (LSM) in the RTKLIB (RTKPOST module) software. Two research tests were performed within the scope of the experiment, i.e. in test I the aircraft position was determined on the basis of raw GPS observations and the broadcast ephemeris data whereas in test II precision products of the IGS were used, such as: precise ephemeris SP3, DCB hardware delay, clock bias data of GPS satellites and receivers in the CLK format, data of the ionosphere maps based on IONEX format, and phase center calibration of GPS satellites and receivers in the ANTEX format. The use of the IGS precision products improved the accuracy of the X coordinate to 1 m, Y to 0.7 m and Z to 1.3 m. On the basis of tests I and II, an additional RMS-3D parameter was determined, whose mean value was 4 m.

Open access

Marek Grzegorzewski, Anna Swiatek, Stanislaw Oszczak, Adam Ciecko and Janusz Cwiklak

ABSTRACT

The Satellite Base Augmentation System (SBAS) - EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) has been certified for Safety of Life (SoL) service for aircraft navigation since 2nd of March 2011. Unfortunately for the territory of Poland, located at the edge of EGNOS service area, the quality of the service corrections are still not sufficient for aircraft navigation requirements. Years 2012 and 2013 are forecasted as a maximum of solar activity in a 11-year solar cycle. This time period will be the chance to perform the first tests for the EGNOS Safety of Life service quality in disturbed ionospheric conditions. During the previous maximum of solar activity, the storm on 30 October 2003 resulted in the inability to use WAAS corrections for more than 12 hours. This was caused by a very large gradient of disturbances and its’ very sharp boundaries - vertical TEC (VTEC) varied from ~ 40 to ~ 120 TECU (TEC units) within an hour (over ~ 150 km distance). These circumstances gave the opportunity to carry out the test flights to examine the navigation parameters obtained for EGNOS SoL service in disturbed ionospheric conditions. The paper presents project proposal of study and analyses of such fundamental navigation parameters as: accuracy of determined position, availability, continuity and integrity, determined for selected disturbances in relation to quiet conditions. It can give a possibility to estimate of the quality of EGNOS SoL service in Polish airspace during the different phases of flight and its resistance to critical ionospheric conditions.

Open access

Adam Ciećko, Marek Grzegorzewski, Stanisław Oszczak, Janusz Ćwiklak, Grzegorz Grunwald, Jan Balint and Stanislav Szabo

Abstract

The first PBN approach procedures in Slovakia became operationally effective at Bratislava and Košice airports as of 5 February 2015. The article presents the results of EGNOS Safety-of-Life Service preliminary examination in eastern Slovakia, just before official introduction of these procedures. The practical examination includes static test and test flight made with Cessna plane taking off at the airport in Bidovce — LZBD (just 16 km from international airport in Košice) and passing a route along eastern border of Slovakia. In this region the performance of EGNOS could be unsatisfactory due to lack of RIMS stations to the east from there. The experiment was performed on October 13, 2014 in cooperation of the Air Force Academy in Deblin, the Department of Aviation of Technical University in Košice and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn.